Students motivation is one of the most important factors influencing how much they learn. As you read the following case study, which involves a world history teacher who has her class involved in a unit on the Crusades, consider what she does to influence her students motivation. Motivation is a force that energizes, sustains and directs behavior toward a goal ( Brophy, 2004; Pintrich & Schunk, 2002), and researchers have found a positive and robust correlation between motivation and achievement ( McDermott, Mordell & Stoltzfus, 2001; Wang, Haertal & Walberg, 1993; R. Weinstein, 1998) Children’s motivation to learn lies at the very core of achieving success in schooling. Given rapid technological advances, an ever-changing knowledge base, and shifting workplace needs, a continuing motivation to learn may well be the hallmark of individual accomplishment across the lifespan. In general, motivated students have more positive attitudes toward school and describe school as satisfying. Other than that, persist on difficult tasks and cause fewer management problems. Students also able to process information in depth and excel in classroom learning experiences ( Stipek, 1996, 2002) . Not surprisingly, motivated students are a primary source of job satisfaction for teachers. Motivation can be described in two broad categories. Extrinsic motivation is motivation to engage in an activity as a means to an end, whereas instrinsic motivation is motivation to be involved in an activity for its own sake.. extrinsically motivated learners may study hard for a test because they believe studying will lead to high test scores, for example; intrinsically motivated learners study because they want to understand the content and they view learning as worthwhile in itself. Although we think of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation as two ends of a continuum (meaning the higher the extrinsic motivation, the lower the intrinsic motivation and vice versa), they are actually on separate continua ( Covington, 2000; Pintrich & schunk, 2002). For example, students might study hard both because a topic is interesting and because they want good grades. Others might study only to receive the good grades. The first group is high in both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation; the second is high in extrinsic motivation but low in intrinsic motivation. Research indicates that intrinsic motivation is preferable because of its focus on learning and understanding (Brophy, 2004). Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation are also contextual and can and can change over time. Researches have determined that learners are intrinsically motivated by activities or experiences that * Present a challenge. Challenge occurs when goals are moderately difficult, and success isn’t guaranteed. Meeting challenges is also emotionally satisfying. * Provide the learner with feeling of autonomy. Learners are more motivated when they feel that they have command or influence over their own learning. * Evoke curiosity. Interesting, novel, surprising or discrepant experiences create intrinsic motivation. * Involve creativity and fantasy. Experiences allow learners to personalize content by using their imaginations. In addition, some researches suggest that aesthetic experiences those associated with beauty that evoke emotional reactions may be intrinsically motivating as well ( Ryan & deci, 2000). Behavioral view of motivation
Behaviorism views learning as a change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience. An increase in studying or learning behaviors is viewed as evidence of motivation ( Pintrinch & Schunk, 2002), so reinforcers, such as praise, comments on homework, high test scores, and good grades, are motivators. Using Rewards in Classrooms
Although the use of rewards in classrooms is controversial ( Kohn, 1992, 1993b, 1996b), it is still common ( Eisenberger et al., 1999). Rewards commonly used in elementary classrooms include *...
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