Sources of Motivation
To be motivated, according to Arthur Schopenhaur, is to be moved into action. This definition of motivation implies that there must be someone, something, or some internal drive that propels one into action (Deckers, 2005). Therefore, any action committed by an organism is induced by either internal motives or environmental incentives. Driven by motives, a person will work to achieve positive incentives and to try to avoid negative ones. An incentive is the reward or aversive event that will occur or be avoided as a direct result of the action or lack thereof. One must be motivated to do something for something. These sources of motivation vary between two main categories. These consist of internal-external (environmental) and psychological-neurophysical. Environmental stimuli are known to induce involuntary movement. A person may be scared by a loud sound, or recognize physical cues of hunger after smelling a meal cooking. During involuntary responses, the responses follow the stimulus immediately and the strength of the effect is always equal to the strength of the cause. Voluntary behavior does not show such a relationship between the causes and effects of behavior. It might occur immediately after a stimulus is presented, or after a significant delay. According to Schopenhaur, internal motives are such things as desires, impulses, instincts, needs, wants, wishes, or yearnings. Any kind of action requires some kind of energy, stored in the body as potential energy, becoming kinetic energy when released through an action. Free will is the belief that the motives that induced the behavior were chosen independent of previous ideas or events, therefore the action is known as a free act. On the other hand, determinism states that the motive was caused by past events or ideas, the result being a determined act (Deckers, 2005). There are two types of sources for motivation: internal sources and external sources, as was briefly discussed in...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document