REPORT MOTIVATION OF INDIVIDUAL

Topics: Motivation, Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Psychology Pages: 35 (973 words) Published: February 16, 2015
Motivation in Individual

Prepared by:
LOURDES MARIAN P. PEŇALOSA

Chapter Objectives
• Characterize the nature of motivation, including
its importance and basic historical perspectives
• Describe the need-based perspectives on
motivation.
• Explain the major process-based perspectives
on motivation.
• Describe learning-based perspectives on
motivation.

The Nature of Motivation
• Motivation
– The set of forces that leads people to behave in a
particular way.

• The Importance of Motivation
– Job performance (P) depends upon motivation (M),
ability, and environment (E)

•P=M+A+E

The Motivational Framework

Historical Perspectives on Motivation
• The Traditional Approach
– “Scientific Management” (Frederick Taylor)
assumes that employees are motivated solely
by money

Historical Perspectives on Motivation
• The Human Relations Approach
– Assumed that employees want to feel useful
and important, that employees have strong
social needs, and that these needs are more
important than money in motivating
employees.

Historical Perspectives on Motivation
• The Human Resource Approach
– Assumes people want to make genuine
contributions; managers should encourage
their participation by providing the proper
working environment conditions

Need-Based
Perspectives on
Motivation

• Needs-Based Theories
– Humans are motivated primarily by
deficiencies in one or more important needs
or need categories.
– Need theorists have attempted to identify and
categorize the needs that are most important
to people.
– Hierarchy of Needs, ERG, and Dual-Structure
Theories

Hierarchy of Needs Theory
• Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
– Assumes human needs are arranged in a
hierarchy of importance
– Maslow believed each need level must be
satisfied before the level above it can become
important.

The Hierarchy of Needs

ERG Theory
– Clayton Alderfer
– Describes Existence(E), Relatedness (E), and
Growth (G) needs
– In contrast to Maslow’s approach, ERG theory
includes a satisfaction progression
component and a frustration-regression
component.

Dual-Structure Theory
– Frederick Herzberg and his associates developed the
dual-structure theory in the late 1950s and early 1960s.
– Assumes that motivation, as a construct, has two separate dimensions:
• Motivation factors -- intrinsic to the work itself and
include factors such as achievement and recognition.
• Hygiene factors -- extrinsic to the work itself and
include factors such as pay and job security.

The Dual-Structure Theory of Motivation

Other Important Needs
– The Need for Achievement (David McClelland)
• The desire to accomplish a task or goal more effectively than was done in the past

– The Need for Affiliation
• The need for human companionship

– The Need for Power
• The desire to control the resources in one’s environment

Process-Based
Perspectives
on
Motivation

• Process-Based Theories
– Deal with how motivation occurs
– Why people choose certain behavioral options to
satisfy their needs
– How people evaluate their satisfaction after they have
attained these goals

• Useful Process Perspectives
– Equity Theory, Expectancy Theory, and Goal Setting
Theory.

Equity Theory of Motivation
• The Equity Theory of Motivation
– Focuses on the desire to be treated with equity
and to avoid perceived inequity
• Equity is a perceptual belief that one is being
treated fairly in relation to others
• Inequity is a perceptual belief that one is being
treated unfairly in relation to others

Forming Equity Perceptions
• Step 1: A person evaluates how he or she is being
treated by the firm.
• Step 2: The person forms a perception of how a
“comparison other” is being treated.
• Step 3: The person compares his or her own
circumstances with those of the comparison other to
form an impression of either equity or inequity.
• Step 4: On the strength of this feeling, the...
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