Topics: Motivation, Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Psychology Pages: 35 (973 words) Published: February 16, 2015
Motivation in Individual

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Chapter Objectives
• Characterize the nature of motivation, including
its importance and basic historical perspectives
• Describe the need-based perspectives on
• Explain the major process-based perspectives
on motivation.
• Describe learning-based perspectives on

The Nature of Motivation
• Motivation
– The set of forces that leads people to behave in a
particular way.

• The Importance of Motivation
– Job performance (P) depends upon motivation (M),
ability, and environment (E)


The Motivational Framework

Historical Perspectives on Motivation
• The Traditional Approach
– “Scientific Management” (Frederick Taylor)
assumes that employees are motivated solely
by money

Historical Perspectives on Motivation
• The Human Relations Approach
– Assumed that employees want to feel useful
and important, that employees have strong
social needs, and that these needs are more
important than money in motivating

Historical Perspectives on Motivation
• The Human Resource Approach
– Assumes people want to make genuine
contributions; managers should encourage
their participation by providing the proper
working environment conditions

Perspectives on

• Needs-Based Theories
– Humans are motivated primarily by
deficiencies in one or more important needs
or need categories.
– Need theorists have attempted to identify and
categorize the needs that are most important
to people.
– Hierarchy of Needs, ERG, and Dual-Structure

Hierarchy of Needs Theory
• Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
– Assumes human needs are arranged in a
hierarchy of importance
– Maslow believed each need level must be
satisfied before the level above it can become

The Hierarchy of Needs

ERG Theory
– Clayton Alderfer
– Describes Existence(E), Relatedness (E), and
Growth (G) needs
– In contrast to Maslow’s approach, ERG theory
includes a satisfaction progression
component and a frustration-regression

Dual-Structure Theory
– Frederick Herzberg and his associates developed the
dual-structure theory in the late 1950s and early 1960s.
– Assumes that motivation, as a construct, has two separate dimensions:
• Motivation factors -- intrinsic to the work itself and
include factors such as achievement and recognition.
• Hygiene factors -- extrinsic to the work itself and
include factors such as pay and job security.

The Dual-Structure Theory of Motivation

Other Important Needs
– The Need for Achievement (David McClelland)
• The desire to accomplish a task or goal more effectively than was done in the past

– The Need for Affiliation
• The need for human companionship

– The Need for Power
• The desire to control the resources in one’s environment


• Process-Based Theories
– Deal with how motivation occurs
– Why people choose certain behavioral options to
satisfy their needs
– How people evaluate their satisfaction after they have
attained these goals

• Useful Process Perspectives
– Equity Theory, Expectancy Theory, and Goal Setting

Equity Theory of Motivation
• The Equity Theory of Motivation
– Focuses on the desire to be treated with equity
and to avoid perceived inequity
• Equity is a perceptual belief that one is being
treated fairly in relation to others
• Inequity is a perceptual belief that one is being
treated unfairly in relation to others

Forming Equity Perceptions
• Step 1: A person evaluates how he or she is being
treated by the firm.
• Step 2: The person forms a perception of how a
“comparison other” is being treated.
• Step 3: The person compares his or her own
circumstances with those of the comparison other to
form an impression of either equity or inequity.
• Step 4: On the strength of this feeling, the...
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