Courtney D. Stevenson
October 13, 2014
University of Phoenix
In any court case, whether reality or fictional, it is always important for the prosecution to establish a motive for the defendant for the crime in question. Without a strong motive, it is relatively difficult to prove the defendant’s guilt. Finding a crime without some sort of motive is somewhat difficult because as humans there are usually reasons for every action. Motives not only contribute to what crimes a person may commit but it can also determine what college someone chooses to attend, which career path they may choose, and which spouse they decide to marry. There are many things that may contribute to how each individuals’ motives are originated. This paper will discuss what motivation means, the sources of motivation, and the correlations between motivation and behavior. Motivation
In short terms, motivation can be defined as the reasons an individual chooses to do what they do. The author Lambert Deckers describes motivation “as the process by which a person is moved into action (Deckers, 2010).” Additionally, the text refers to Atkinson and McClelland’s definition of motive as “a person’s internal disposition to be concerned with and approach positive incentives and avoid negative incentives (Deckers, 2010).” Basically for every action, there is a background reason for why the action was taken. There are many things that contribute to motivation, but two main sources of motivation are internal and external sources.
Sources of Motivation
As stated previously, there are two sources of motivation, internal and external. Internal sources that affect motivation are psychological depositions and biological attributes (Deckers, 2010). Biological attributes are essentially things that an individual receives genetically at birth or things that develop over time naturally without outside interference. Biological attributes such as the need for sleep can motivate an individual who is sleepier to seek comfort and quiet and become less active; while another less sleepy and more active person may seek adventure and excitement. Although there are ways to combat sleepiness with external things such as coffee and energy drinks, it is still in human DNA to sleep. The second internal motivation, psychological disposition, refers to quantifiable attributes. The text refers to Pickett and coresearchers’ (2004) Need to Belong Scale experiment that explains how psychological variables contribute to motivation. Essentially individuals were tested on their abilities to identify facial expressions of anger, fear, happiness and sadness. The hypothesis was that individuals who had a stronger need to belong would be able to identify expressions better than others who had a lesser need to belong. The study concluded that the hypothesis was correct (Deckers2010). What this study proves is that when an individual feels a certain emotion in their mind, there are physical representations of those emotions. When someone is sad, they may cry; or if someone finds something amusing they will laugh. The psychological and biological variables work together to create reactions. The concept of emergence explains that the brain’s neuronal activity issues forth mental processes, which means the mind is an emergent property of the brain (Deckers2010). This means that the unconscious thoughts of the brain transmit to the mind so that it can process what the brain needs. When someone is hungry or thirsty it is evident to the brain that the levels of certain hormones or vitamins have decreased, but in the mind the response is the need to just drink or eat. The brain sends notification to the mind, the mind processes the information and determines the motive for a behavior. The second source of motivation is the environment. “Environmental variables refer to those characteristics of incentives and goals that have the...
References: Deckers, L. (2010). Motivation: Biological, psychological, and environmental (3rd ed.).
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