Motivation plays an important part of every organization. Organizations have three types of workers: salespeople, production workers, and administrative staffs. Different types of workers are motivated in different types of ways. The Two-Factor Theory, Equity Theory, and Expectancy Theory are very effective in motivating these types of workers.
Equity is also known as attempts to explain relational satisfaction in terms of
perceptions of fair/unfair distribution of resources within interpersonal relationship. It
was developed in 1963 by John Stacy Adams, a workplace and behavior psychologist,
who asserted that employees seek to maintain equity between the inputs they bring in and
the outcome of what they receive from their share of the contribution of others.
(Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia.) Equity is mainly focused on how a person thinks
and how they think they should be rewarded. In equity it is determined on how an
individual contributes to his or her part and how they work within the organization.
Equity is defined as how an individual consider how he/she is treated. Equity is of time,
loyalty, and hard working in the organization. Equity is basically the relationship and
individual has between a employees motivation on the job. This means employees want
to be treated with respect and dignity on the job. They want respect for what they do on a
daily basis. Many individuals have a different aspect of equity, but equity is really
getting credit where credit is due. If there was no equity in the organization there would
be chaos in the workplace.
The degree to which a person is motivated is dependent on a number of determining factors. Undoubtedly, people are motivated by different reasons and in diverse ways. In an organization, individuals are motivated by pay raises, praise, recognition, and promotions. These attributes all inspire satisfaction and refers to the unparalleled forces that rationalize for the direction, level, and persistence of a person's endeavor consumed at work (Schermerhorn, Hunt, & Osborn, 2005, p.5). According to Victor Vroom’s’ ”Expectancy Theory”, a person is motivated as a result of how much they desire a particular reward (Ali 2006). Vroom's theory suggests that an individual’s behavior results from cognizant choices among alternatives whose purpose it is to maximize pleasure and minimize pain (Wikipedia 2008). Vroom’s theory may be a better motivator for production workers, rather than salespeople and administrative workers because, production workers are operatives workers and are more concerned with light and heavy commerce. As a result, production workers may choose to believe they will be recompensed for their efforts and may perhaps be willing to employ it based on Vroom’s theory of reward.
Based on Frederick Herzberg “Two-Factor Theory,” individuals are influenced by two distinguishing dynamics. Contentment and psychological growth are a resulting factor of motivation (Hygiene Factors 2008). Herzberg’s theory of motivation is most appropriate for administrative workers, due to their varied career duties necessary to run an organization efficiently. As it relates to Herzberg’s theory, administrative workers serve as informative communication administrators for an organization. According to this theory, hygiene factors are sources of job dissatisfaction. These factors are associated with the job context or work setting; that is, they pertain more to the atmosphere in which people work than to the quality of the work itself (Schermerhorn, Hunt, & Osborn, 2005, p.22). This theory is an effective motivator for administrative workers because although they are not highly paid, these employees value the sense of achievement, recognition, and responsibility their position offers. Consequently, Herzberg suggests the technique of employment enhancement as a way of building satisfaction into job contentment...
References: Ali, M. (2006). Expectancy Theory: What Do They Want? EzineArticles.com From http://ezinearticles.com/?Expectancy-Theory:-What-Do-They-Want?&id=376732, Retrieved on June 28, 2008.
Huseman, R.C., Hatfield, J.D. & Miles, E.W. (1987). A New Perspective on Equity Theory: The Equity Sensitivity Construct. The Academy of Management Review. 12;2: 222-234.
Hygiene Factors (2008). Explanation of Two factor theory and KITA of Frederick Herzberg http://www.12manage.com/methods_herzberg_two_factor_theory.html Retrieved
Motivation Factors, Hygiene Factors:Two Factor Theory and KITA . Retrieved June 29, 2008, from http://www.valuebasedmanagement.net/methods_herzberg_two_factor_theory.html
Schermerhorn, J. R., Hunt, J. G., & Osborn, R. N. (2005). Organizational Behavior. 9th edition, New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Wikipedia (2008). Victor Vroom - Expectancy Theory. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victor_Vroom, Retrieved on June 28, 2008
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