Motivation in the workplace
Understand how to gain committed employee co-operation and the importance of managing performance at work (P3, P4, M2, and D1) 1. Outline how an organisations motivational practices and reward systems are informed by theories of motivation. (P3) 2. Describe how an organisation obtains the cooperation of employees through the contract of employment and employee involvement techniques. (P4) 3. Compare the use of motivation theories for different jobs within the different parts of the organisation. You might find it useful to compare the way in which different techniques are used to motivate different employees. (M2) 4. Suggest, with justifications, ways of improving motivation for staff who work at the organisation. (D1) (P3) What is motivation?
Overall, motivation is made up of internal and external factors that stimulate desire and energy in people to be continually interested and committed to a job, role or subject, or to make an effort to attain a goal. Motivation results from the interaction of both conscious and unconscious factors such as the intensity of desire or need, incentive or reward value of the goal, and expectations of the individual and of his or her peers. These factors are the reasons one has for behaving a certain way. An example is a student that spends extra time studying for a test because he or she wants a better grade in the class. (Definition from www.businessdictionary.com) The problem of keeping workers happy has been a problem for businesses for an extremely long time; this has led to a number of people producing theories as to what keeps workers motivated, the main ones are: * Taylor’s Scientific Management
* Mayo’s Human Relations Theories
* Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
* Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory
This selection are not the only motivational theories used, I will explain the ones stated in turn. Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1915)
Was the first to analyse the management of workers, his “scientific approach” was to: * Select workers to perform a task.
* Observe them, and then note the key elements.
* Record the time taken to do each part of the task.
* Train all workers to do the task in the quickest way.
* Supervise workers to ensure they use this method.
* Pay workers on the basis of results.
This led Taylor to believe that workers were motivated solely by money; he promoted the idea of “A Fair day’s pay for a fair day’s work”. Taylor’s methods were widely adopted as businesses saw the benefits of increased productivity levels and lower unit costs. The most notably advocate was Henry Ford who used them to design the first ever production line, making Ford cars. This was the start of the era of mass production. Elton Mayo (1880-1949) is best known for his study of the Hawthorne Electric factory in Chicago, he initially believed that workers were motivated by; working conditions, the skills of workers, and financial incentives. This was put to the test over a five year period where he was surprised to discover that the changed in working conditions or financial rewards has little to no effect. The conclusion came to was that workers are motivated by the way that they interact with each other, in other words- working in teams, within which they can discuss ideas and make effective and efficient decisions. Therefore the overall outcome of his investigation was that workers were best motivated by; * Better communication between managers and workers (Hawthorne workers were consulted over the experiments and also had to the opportunity to give feedback) * Greater manager involvement in employees working lives (Hawthorne workers responded to the increased level of attention they were receiving) * Working in groups or teams (Hawthorne workers did not previously regularly work in teams) Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) suggested in his Theory of Human Motivation, that his theory is one popular and extensively...
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