Theories in Motivation:
Biddle (2003) conducted a study examining the relationship between motivation and self perception. In his study he looked at a number of motivational theories and how these theories have been used to in relation to motivation in sporting and physical activity setting. These theories include Self determination theory (Deci, 1985), the Social Cognitive theory (Bandura,1977), the Competence Motivation theory and Achievement Goal theory (Tsang, 2007). Achievement Goal Theory:
There is a lot of literature on the achievement goal theory and can be applying this literature can be helpful. Lochbaum et al (2008) found that it has been very helpful in understanding effect, cognitions and behaviours as related to achievement motivation in both a sporting and exercise setting. The Achievement theory assisted in giving an insight into why people participate and stay involved in sport and exercise. Morris (2009) argues that the main part of this theory is that people participate in the achievement context to achieve competence. Morris also felt this that competence can be achieved in two ways improvement and capacity. Lochbaum et al describes that individuals are different in the way in which they describe success and evaluate competence. Lee (2003) agrees with Morris that these different ways are divided into two forms: 1. Task-orientation or Mastery Involvement: This is when an effort-based interpretation of the ability is used. The athlete focuses on mastering a task and judge success by self referenced criteria such as understanding, completing or overcoming a challenge.
2. Ego-Orientation or Competitive Involvement: This occurs when adequacy of ability in relation to others is dominant. They focus on demonstrating ability and judge success by normative criteria such as establishing superiority over others and gaining success more easily.
Lee (2003) explains that although people can alter between these criteria’s task and ego orientation, socialisation and experience can cause people to develop a dispositional direction towards one criteria or the other. Biddle (2003) believes that the principle of sport is to develop mastery and that task orientation is linked to higher morale functioning and sportsmanship. He also describes ego-orientation as being connected to endorsement of aggression, poor sportsmanship, the belief that ability and cheating cause success and the point of sport is to gain a social status.
Social Cognitive Theory:
Bandura (1977) described the social cognitive theory as the psychosocial dynamics that influence helath behaviour and the methods of promoting behaviour change. One of the major concepts of the social cognitive theory refers to the individuals interaction with their environment, the situation or an individual character and their personality. He felt that if one of these components were to change the other components were likely to change. In 1998 Bandura believed that the Social Cognitive Theory is based around two main concepts: 1) Outcome Expectations: Netz (2004) states that outcome expectations are based on the belief that carrying out a certain behaviour will lead to a desired outcome.
2) Self-Efficacy: According to Feltz (2008)self efficiency is the belief in ones capabilities to organise and accomplish the course of action required to perform given skills. Feltz also states that efficacy beliefs are formed as a result of self appraisal and self persuasion through processing of information such as past performance, verbal persuasion and psychological state.
Feltz (2008) felt that motivation is the engine that allows people to keep performing in relation to the social cognitive approach. A central piece of the theory is self-efficacy, as they choose the knowledge, skills and the accomplishment, of goals by helping athletes to have better self-control both environmentally and inside in relation to their performance. Competence Motivation Theory:...
References: Biddle, S.W (2003) Motivation for physical activity in young people: entity and incremental beliefs about athletic ability. Journal of Sports Sciences, 21 (12), 973-989.
Lochbaum, M.A (2008) Achievement goal profiles for self report Physical Activity Participation: Differences in Personality. Journal of Sports Behaviour, 30 (4), 470- 490.
Morris, R.L (2009) The role of approach avoidance verses task and ego goals in enjoyment and cognitive anxiety in youth sport. International Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 7 (2), 185-203.
Lee, M.A. (2008) Relationships Among values, Achievment Orientation, and attitudes in youth sport, 30 (5) 588-611.
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