Tourism Management 30 (2009) 890–899
Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/tourman
Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory of work motivation tested empirically on seasonal workers in hospitality and tourism
Christine Lundberg a, *, Anna Gudmundson b, Tommy D. Andersson c a
School of Business and Informatics, University College of Borås, Boras 501 90, Sweden ETOUR, Mid-Sweden University, Ostersund, Sweden
School of Business, Economics and Law, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden b
a r t i c l e i n f o
a b s t r a c t
Received 9 February 2007
Accepted 2 December 2008
The objective of this study was to understand work motivation in a sample of seasonal workers at a tourism destination strongly steered by seasonality. Furthermore, it was investigated whether seasonal workers could be divided into worker subgroups on the basis of their work motivation. A structural equations model tested Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory of work motivation empirically. The ﬁndings of the study support the Two-Factor Theory of work motivation. Furthermore, results indicated that a migrant community of workers was signiﬁcantly less concerned about wage level as well as signiﬁcantly more concerned about meeting new people than resident workers. As a result of these ﬁndings, it is suggested that management of businesses in hospitality and tourism need to consider that the seasonal workforce consists of different kinds of worker subgroups, which have different needs to be satisﬁed.
Ó 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The objective of this study is to understand work motivation in a sample of seasonal workers at a ski-resort strongly steered by seasonality, situated in northern Sweden.
Tourism is strongly steered by seasonality. An international deﬁnition of seasonality in the hospitality and tourism industries is, seen in the strictest sense, a peaking of demand at different times of the year (Kennedy, 1999). Even though all destinations are subject to some form of seasonality, research indicates that peripheral destinations, in both the southern and northern hemispheres, have the greatest difﬁculty in overcoming the problems caused by seasonality (Lundtorp, Rassing, & Wanhill, 1999). Both coastal and winter sport resorts are the most heavily affected by seasonal ﬂuctuations (Pearce, 1989; Murphy, 1997). Urban areas are less affected because of the wide variety of attractions. These attractions are in most cases not dependent on climatic conditions and
therefore not as vulnerable to climatic changes (Butler & Mao, 1997).
Baum (1999) suggests that the impact of demand variation is
one of the major operational and policy concerns of the hospitality
* Corresponding author. Tel.: þ46 33 435 4088.
E-mail address: Christine.Lundberg@hb.se (C. Lundberg).
0261-5177/$ – see front matter Ó 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.tourman.2008.12.003
and tourism industries. The supply-side behavior is affected in all aspects including marketing (packaging, pricing, distribution), business ﬁnance (cash ﬂow, attracting investment) and the labor market (sustainability of employment, nature and quality of
employment, skills availability) (Baum, 1999; Cooper, Fletcher, Gilberg, & Wanhill, 1993).
Vaughan and Andriotis (2000) suggest that one major characteristic of employment in hospitality and tourism is its seasonal and part-time nature, which can result in seasonal
employment, underemployment, and unemployment (Jolliffe &
Farnsworth, 2003). Furthermore, the negative employment
image within the sector affects the recruitment and retention of qualiﬁed employees. This image is created by the generally perceived idea that work within the hospitality and tourism
industries only offers limited opportunity for...
References: Ambrose, M. L., & Kulik, C. T. (1999). Old friends, new faces: motivation research in
Balmer, S., & Baum, T. (1993). Applying Herzberg’s hygiene factors to the changing
Barrick, M. R., & Mount, M. K. (1991). The big ﬁve personality dimensions and job
performance: a meta-analysis
Baum, T. (1999). Seasonality in tourism: understanding the challenges.
Baum, T., Amoha, V., & Spivack, S. (1997). Policy dimensions of human resource
management in the tourism and hospitality industries
Baum, J. R., & Locke, E. A. (2004). The relationship of entrepreneurial traits, skill and
motivation to subsequent venture
Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model ﬁt. In
Butler, R. W., & Mao, B. (1997). Seasonality in tourism: problems and measurement.
C. Lundberg et al. / Tourism Management 30 (2009) 890–899
Cooper, C., Fletcher, J., Gilbert, D., & Wanhill, S
deLeon, L., & Taher, W. (1996). Expectations and job satisfaction of local-government
deShields, O. W., Jr., Kara, A., & Kaynak, E. (2005). Determinants of business
student satisfaction and retention in higher education: applying Herzberg’s TwoFactor Theory
Furnham, A., Forde, L., & Ferrari, K. (1999). Personality and work motivation.
Personality and Individual Differences, 26(6), 1035–1043.
Herzberg, F. (1971). Work and the nature of man. New York: World Publishing.
Herzberg, F., Mausner, B., & Bloch Snyderman, B. (2005). The motivation to work.
Hjalager, A., & Andersen, S. (2000). Tourism employment: contingent work or
Janssen, P. P. M., de Jonge, J., & Bakker, A. B. (1999). Speciﬁc determinants of intrinsic
work motivation, burnout and turnover intentions: a study among nurses.
Journal of Advanced Nursing, 26(6), 1360–1369.
Jolliffe, L., & Farnsworth, R. (2003). Seasonality in tourism employment: human
Jo¨reskog, K. G., & So¨rbom, D. (1993a). LISREL 8: structural equation modeling with the
SIMPLIS command language
Jo¨reskog, K. G., & So¨rbom, D. (1993b). LISREL 8: structural equation modeling with the
SIMPLIS command language
Kennedy, E. (1999). Seasonality in Irish tourism, 1973–1995. Tourism Economics –
The Business and Finance of Tourism and Recreation, 5(1), 25–47.
Kusluvan, S. (2003). Characteristics of employment and human resource management in the tourism and hospitality industry. In S. Kusluvan (Ed.), Managing
employee attitudes and behaviors in the tourism and hospitality industry (pp
Latham, G. P., & Pinder, C. C. (2005). Work motivation theory and research at the
dawn of the twenty-ﬁrst century
Lee, C., & Moreo, P. (2007). What do seasonal lodging operators need to know about
seasonal workers? International Journal of Hospitality Management, 26(1),
Lee-Ross, D. (1999b). Seasonal hotel jobs: an occupation and a way of life. International Journal of Tourism Research, 1(4), 239–253.
Lundmark, L. (2006). Mobility, migration and seasonal tourism employment:
evidence from Swedish mountain municipalities
Lundtorp, S., Rassing, C. R., & Wanhill, S. (1999). The off-season is ‘no season’: the
case of the Danish Island of Bornholm
McClelland, D. C. (1985). Human Motivation. Glenview, IL: Scott Foresman & Co.
Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis. USA: SAGE
Murphy, P. E. (Ed.). (1997). Quality management in urban tourism. Chichester: John
Wiley & Sons.
Parsons, E., & Broadbride, A. (2006). Job motivation and satisfaction: unpacking the
key factors for charity shop managers
Pearce, D. (1989). Tourist development. Harlow: Longman Group.
Pinder, C. C. (1998). Work motivation in organizational behaviour. USA: Prentice Hall.
Ryan, C. (1995). Researching tourist satisfaction – issues, concepts, problems. London:
Tett, R. P., & Burnett, D. D. (2003). A personality trait-based interactionist model of
Tietjen, M. A., & Myers, R. M. (1998). Motivation and job satisfaction. Management
Decision, 36(4), 226–231.
Vaughan, R., & Andriotis, K. (2000). The characteristics of the tourism workforce:
the case of Crete
Wang, M., & Erdheim, J. (2007). Does the ﬁve-factor model of personality relate to
goal orientation? Personality and Individual Differences, 43, 1493–1505.
Witt, L. A., & Ferris, G. R. (2003). Social skill as a moderator of the conscientiousness-performance relationship: convergent results across four studies. Journal
of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 809–821.
Wright, P. (1989). Motivation and job satisfaction. In C. Molander (Ed.), Human
Please join StudyMode to read the full document