Motivation Herzberg

Topics: Motivation, Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Employment Pages: 10 (8162 words) Published: November 19, 2014
Tourism Management 30 (2009) 890–899

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Tourism Management
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Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory of work motivation tested empirically on seasonal workers in hospitality and tourism
Christine Lundberg a, *, Anna Gudmundson b, Tommy D. Andersson c a

School of Business and Informatics, University College of Borås, Boras 501 90, Sweden ETOUR, Mid-Sweden University, Ostersund, Sweden
School of Business, Economics and Law, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden b

a r t i c l e i n f o

a b s t r a c t

Article history:
Received 9 February 2007
Accepted 2 December 2008

The objective of this study was to understand work motivation in a sample of seasonal workers at a tourism destination strongly steered by seasonality. Furthermore, it was investigated whether seasonal workers could be divided into worker subgroups on the basis of their work motivation. A structural equations model tested Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory of work motivation empirically. The findings of the study support the Two-Factor Theory of work motivation. Furthermore, results indicated that a migrant community of workers was significantly less concerned about wage level as well as significantly more concerned about meeting new people than resident workers. As a result of these findings, it is suggested that management of businesses in hospitality and tourism need to consider that the seasonal workforce consists of different kinds of worker subgroups, which have different needs to be satisfied.

Ó 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Work motivation

1. Introduction
The objective of this study is to understand work motivation in a sample of seasonal workers at a ski-resort strongly steered by seasonality, situated in northern Sweden.
Tourism is strongly steered by seasonality. An international definition of seasonality in the hospitality and tourism industries is, seen in the strictest sense, a peaking of demand at different times of the year (Kennedy, 1999). Even though all destinations are subject to some form of seasonality, research indicates that peripheral destinations, in both the southern and northern hemispheres, have the greatest difficulty in overcoming the problems caused by seasonality (Lundtorp, Rassing, & Wanhill, 1999). Both coastal and winter sport resorts are the most heavily affected by seasonal fluctuations (Pearce, 1989; Murphy, 1997). Urban areas are less affected because of the wide variety of attractions. These attractions are in most cases not dependent on climatic conditions and

therefore not as vulnerable to climatic changes (Butler & Mao, 1997).
Baum (1999) suggests that the impact of demand variation is
one of the major operational and policy concerns of the hospitality

* Corresponding author. Tel.: þ46 33 435 4088.
E-mail address: (C. Lundberg).
0261-5177/$ – see front matter Ó 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.tourman.2008.12.003

and tourism industries. The supply-side behavior is affected in all aspects including marketing (packaging, pricing, distribution), business finance (cash flow, attracting investment) and the labor market (sustainability of employment, nature and quality of

employment, skills availability) (Baum, 1999; Cooper, Fletcher, Gilberg, & Wanhill, 1993).
Vaughan and Andriotis (2000) suggest that one major characteristic of employment in hospitality and tourism is its seasonal and part-time nature, which can result in seasonal
employment, underemployment, and unemployment (Jolliffe &
Farnsworth, 2003). Furthermore, the negative employment
image within the sector affects the recruitment and retention of qualified employees. This image is created by the generally perceived idea that work within the hospitality and tourism
industries only offers limited opportunity for...

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