Motivation and Theories

Topics: Motivation, Self-efficacy, Employment Pages: 15 (4794 words) Published: June 16, 2013
Motivation is derived from Latin word mover which means “to move” motivation is the process that account for an individual’s intensity direction and persistence of efforts toward attaining a goal. While general motivation is concerned with effort to word any goal we will narrow the focus to organizational goals in order to reflect our singular interest in work related behavior.

The three key elements in our definition are intensity direction and persistence intensity is concerned with how hard a person tries this is the element most of us focus on when we talk about motivation however high intensity is unlikely to lead to favorable job-performance outcomes unless the effort is channeled in a direction that benefits the organization therefore we have to consider the quality of effort as well as its intensity. Effort that is directed toward and consistent with the organization goals is the kind of effort that we should be seeking finally motivation has a persistence dimension. This is a measure of how long a person can maintain effort motivated individuals stay with a task long enough to achieve their goal.

The term “motivation” has been derived from the word “motive”, which means the urge to do or not to do something. Motivation may, therefore, be defined as the process of stimulating or inducing people to take the desired course of action. The process of motivation begins with the awareness of a need. When a person feel hungry, for example, he takes measures to satisfy his hunger. He works to earn money to buy food. Once his need for food satisfied, he may feel a new need and will again act in order to satisfy it.

Concept of Motivation:
•A need must be felt by an individual in such a way that it drives him/her to satisfy it. •The force underlying this behavior may be called motivation. •This force may vary depending upon the intensity and importance of the need to the individual. People’s behavior is determined by what motivates them. Their performance is a product of both ability level and motivation. Needs: a physiological or psychological imbalance leads to the creation of a need Drives/motives: propel individual to attain their goals or satisfy their needs.–Incentives: that can fulfill a need and decrease the intensity of a drive is called incentives.

Two Factor theory or Herzberg theory:
The two-factor theory (also known as Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory and dual-factor theory) states that there are certain factors in the workplace that cause job satisfaction, while a separate set of factors cause dissatisfaction. It was developed by Frederick Herzberg, a psychologist, who theorized that job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction act independently of each other. Two-factor theory fundamentals: Attitudes and their connection with industrial mental health are related to Maslow's theory of motivation. His findings have had a considerable theoretical, as well as a practical, influence on attitudes toward administration. According to Herzberg, individuals are not content with the satisfaction of lower-order needs at work, for example, those associated with minimum salary levels or safe and pleasant working conditions. Rather, individuals look for the gratification of higher-level psychological needs having to do with achievement, recognition, responsibility, advancement, and the nature of the work itself. So far, this appears to parallel Maslow's theory of a need hierarchy. However, Herzberg added a new dimension to this theory by proposing a two-factor model of motivation, based on the notion that the presence of one set of job characteristics or incentives lead to worker satisfaction at work, while another and separate set of job characteristics lead to dissatisfaction at work. Thus, satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not on a continuum with one increasing as the other diminishes, but are independent phenomena. This theory suggests that to...
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