©Trans-Atlantic College, London 2005
Motivation and Job Satisfaction
Written by Dr Prince Efere – for Trans-Atlantic College, London
Contents of this Paper
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. Introduction Frederick Winslow Taylor – Scientific Management Elton Mayo – Hawthorne Experiments Abraham Maslow – Hierarchy of Needs Clayton Alderfer – ERG Theory Douglas McGregor - Theory X and Theory Y W. Ouchi – Theory Z Frederick Hertzberg – Hygiene Theory David C. McClelland - Achievement Theory Victor H Vroom – Expectancy Theory Adams – Equity Theory Locke – Goal Theory B F Skinner – Operant Conditioning Job Satisfaction Conclusion Self-Assessment Questions
Boredom, stress and job dissatisfaction are increasingly becoming so commonplace at work that some commentators believe that motivation of staff could be the key to ameliorating the problem. Motivation could be described as a driving force that makes people willingly want to put in their best in what they do. The concept of motivation is that there is no need to force or threaten people to work harder, as any such force or threat is likely to be ineffective in the long run. Rather, it is better that people should be motivated as it is believed that the driving force which results from motivation will compel people to put in their best out of willingness and not out of force or threat. ©This material is the Copyright of Trans-Atlantic College, London
2 Motivation is believed to lead to an increase in employees’ work performance. That in turn leads to an increase in overall organisational productivity levels. Furthermore, motivation is said to improve employee job satisfaction. Nevertheless, it should be borne in mind that motivation is not a ‘magic show’ that can perform miracles. Thus, we should not expect a secondary school leaver to be able to do the work of a qualified engineer simply because he is highly motivated. Rather for motivation to be effective not only should staff be motivated but management should make sure that the staff has the ability to do the job in the first place. It is when they have the ability and skills that motivation would work. Thus, if a staff member who fails to improve in work performance even though he is clearly motivated it could be a sign of lack of ability, which in turn could be a sign of training need. Motivation in this case would only improve if this particular member of staff is trained to acquire the vital skills and ability - such training could be both on-the-job and off-the-job. It is very important that managers continue to have this in mind as they may feel frustrated and disappointed; in some cases, for instance, they may become angry with the staff, because they fail to appreciate the handicaps the member of staff is experiencing. If motivating staff is such a beneficial thing, how do we go about motivating them? We will not answer this question by writing what motivates staff on the one hand and what does not motivate on the other hand. Rather, we will examine some of the works of experts of the study of motivation. By that we mean examining some of the theories of motivation to understand what they say motivates people.
2. Types of Motivation Theories
Motivation theories are broadly classified under three headings, namely, content theories, process theories and reinforcement theories. (a) Content Theories As the name implies the content theories of motivation focuses on “what” motivates a person. Some examples of the content theories are those contributed by people like Abraham Maslow, Douglas McGregor, Clayton Alderfer, Frederick Herzberg and David McClelland; all of which will be discussed in this paper. (a) Process Theories The process theories look at the entire process of motivation and focuses on “how” a person is motivated. They emphasise the goals by which the individual is motivated. Some of the best known process theories are those contributed by Victor Vroom,...
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