Motivation & Emotion
Motivation – is any condition, usually an internal one that can be inferred to initiate, activate, or maintain an organism’s goal-directed behaviour. First – motivation reflects an internal condition that cannot be directly observed. This may develop from simple physiological needs. Second – motivation is an inferred concept that links a person’s internal conditions to external behaviour. Third – motivation initiates, activates, or attains behaviour. Fourth – motivation generates goal-directed behaviour.
Instinct Theory – organisms are born with a set of biologically based behaviour essential for the survival of the species. Drive Theory – refers to the uncomfortable state of tension that moves an organism to meet biological need. Arousal Theory – it is an activation of central nervous system, the autonomic nervous system, and the muscles and glands. It attempts to explain the link between behaviour and a state of arousal. Incentive Theory – external stimuli trigger motives. The incentive value of stimulus is often learned – as in the case of money as an incentive for work or other condition reinforcers. Incentive motivation - is being aroused by external stimuli.
Expectancy Theories – connect taught and motivation and are explanations of behavior that focus on people’s expectations of success in reaching a goal and their need for achievement as energizing factors.
Motive – is a specific condition, typically involving some form of arousal that directs an organism’s behaviour towards a goal.
Social need – is an aroused condition that directs people towards establishing feelings about themselves and others and towards establishing and maintaining relationships. Cognitive Theory of motivation – asserts that people are actively and regularly involved in determining their own goals and the means of achieving them. Cognitive Control – Cognitive theory holds that if you are aware of and think your behaviour, motivation, emotions and you...
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