TABLE OF CONTENT
Motivation can be define as the process that account for an individual intensity, direction and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal. Motivation can help the employee be more comfortable to do their work at workplace. Beside through the motivation it will influence to the employees performance toward s their job. There have many differences of meaning for motivation based on our researcher. According to Robbins and Judge (2007), they defined motivation as a process that describes the intensity, direction and persistence of effort to achieve a goal. In conjunction with the work environment, Ernest L. McCormick (Mangkunagara, 2002, P94) suggests that work motivation is defined as a condition that affects stimulate, direct and maintain behaviours associated with the work environment. The fact is when employees work they brought the desire, needs, past experiences that make the hope for their work expectations. With motivation, especially motivation to make an achievement will encourage someone to develop the knowledge and ability to achieve better performance. Usually someone who has a strong motivation will have responsibility for generate better performance. According to As'ad (2002, p45) motivation can be defined as something that raises the spirit or employment encouragement. Therefore, commonly referred to as the driving motivation or morale. Meanwhile, according to Robbins (2002, P166), motivation is defined as the willingness to expend high levels of effort for the purposes of the organization are conditioned by the effort's ability to meet the individual needs. Based on the definition above, motivation is the response from the organization or employer to their employees toward of effort of the employees to make them as a work encouragement and employees motive will be achieve.
The theories of motivation is stand as general model to face the problem. Even though the theories cannot give a guide how the manager need to react in the certain situation, these are the theories that can be help in the decision making and also can show the process that can be done to make a result as we want. The three theories is namely hierarchy of need theory, two-factors theory and McClelland theory. Hierarchy of need theory is the best know theory in motivation and it also called Maslow’s hierarchy of need. Maslow hypothesized that within every human being, there exist a hierarchy of five need which is consist of physiology include of hunger, thirst, shelter, sex and other bodily need. Next is safety which is consist f security, and protection from physical and emotional. Then is social it include affection, belongingness ,acceptance. Esteem also one of need in this hierarchy that include internal factor such as self -aspect and external factor such as status. Lastly ia self-actualization which is consist drive to become what we are capable of becoming, include growth, achieving our potential and self-fulfilment. It different with two factory theories Fredrick Herzberg. Two factor theories focus on the needs, for make the achievement it not through the clinical observation like Maslow. Two factory theory is a theory that relates intrinsic factors to job satisfaction and associates extrinsic factors with dissatisfaction. This also called motivation hygiene theory. the hygiene factor it consist of a few factor which is Company policy and administration , supervision, relationship with supervisors, working condition, salaries, relationships with co-workers, personal life, relationships with subordinates, status. After two factor theory proposed by Fredrick Herzberg, the next step is achievement motivation theory found by the David McClelland with presumption that organizations provide opportunities for individuals to satisfy three kinds of higher-level needs, namely the need for achievement, need for power and affiliation needs. In McClelland theory it focus on three need it is need for...
References: 1. Organization Behaviour , Stephen P. Robbins & Timothy A. Judge, 2013, Pearson education limited.
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