Hierarchy of Needs Theory
Theory X and Theory Y
Two factor Theory
Job Engagement Theory
McClelland’s Theory of Needs
Self Determination Theory
Goal Setting Theory
Equity Theory/Organizational Justice
Viewpoint for Managers
The Job Characteristics Model
Using Rewards to motivate employees
Some individuals are driven to succeed. A students who struggles to read a textbook for more than 20 minutes may devour Two States in a day. This document tries to put perspective into the reasons behind these varying degrees of motivation. Remember than the levels of motivation varies both between individuals and within individuals at different times. There are three key elements that define motivation, namely, Intensity, Direction and Persistence. Intensity describes how hard a person tries. Directions talks about proper channeling of intensity. Persistence talks about how long a person is capable of enduring his efforts. Motivation theories based on timeline can be divided in Early Theories and Contemporary theories. Sit back, relax and enjoy this document! EARLY THEORIES
They are broadly classified into four.
1. Hierarchy of Needs theory
2. Theory X and theory Y
3. Two factor theory
4. McClelland’s theory of needs
HIERARCHY OF NEEDS THEORY
This theory is best-known as theory of motivation by Abraham Maslow. It states that within every human being, there exists a hierarchy of five needs: 1. Physiological- hunger, thirst, shelter, sex, and other bodily needs. 2. Safety- security and protection from physical and emotional harm. 3. Social- Affection, belongingness, acceptance, and friendship. 4. Esteem- Internal factors such as self-respect, autonomy, and achievement and external factors such as status, recognition and attention. 5. Self-Actualization- Drive to become what we are capable of becoming includes growth, achieving our potential, and self-fulfillment.
Although no need is ever fully gratified, a substantially satisfied need no longer motivates. Thus as each becomes substantially satisfied, the next one becomes dominant. So if you want to motivate someone according to Maslow, you need to understand what level of hierarchy that person is currently on and focus on satisfying needs at or above that level.
Further Maslow separated the five needs into higher and lower orders. Basic physiological and safety needs, where the theory says people start, were lower-order needs and social, esteem, and self-actualization were higher -order needs.
Application of the need hierarchy theory in an organization:
With Maslow’s theory, an employee’s beginning emphasis on the lower order needs of physiology and security makes sense. Generally, a person beginning his/her career will be very concerned with physiological needs such as adequate wages and stable income and security needs such as benefits and a safe work environment. We all want a good salary to meet the needs of our family and we want to work in a stable environment.
Employees whose lowest level needs have not been met will make job decisions based on compensation, safety, or stability concerns. Also, employees will revert to satisfying their lowest level needs when these needs are no longer met or are threatened (such as during an economic downturn). This places an extra obligation on managers to act humanely when difficult organizational decisions such as staff reductions have to be implemented. Callous implementation of difficult decisions will cause the remaining employees in the organization to feel threatened about the ability or desire of the organization to continue to meet their physiological and security needs.
Once these basic needs are met, the employee will want his “belongingness” (or social) needs met....
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