Topics: Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Motivation, Abraham Maslow Pages: 53 (8039 words) Published: January 19, 2011


Motivation has been variously defined by scholars, usually one or more of these words are include in the definition: desires, wants, aims, goals, drims, motives and incentives.
“Motivation” is a Latin word, meaning “to move”. Human motives are internalized goals within individuals. As Berelson and Steiver state: “A motive is an inner state that energizes, activates or moves and directs or channels behaviour toward goals”.

Definition of motivation

“According to Fred Luthans defined motivation as a “proves that starts with a physiological or psychological deficiency or need that activates behaviour or a drive that is aimed at a goal or incentive”.

In the opinion of Graw and Starke “motivation is result of processes internal or external to the individual, that arouse enthusiasm and persistence to pursue a certain course of action.

After going through the above definitions, motivation can be defined very simply as the willingness to exert towards the accomplishment of goal or need.

According to viteles “motivation represents an unsatisfied need which creates a state of tension or disequilibrium, causing the individual to move in a goal directed pattern towards restoring a state of equilibrium by satisfying need”.


As stated earlier motivation is a process or cycle aimed at accomplishing some goals. the basic elements included in the process are motives goals and behaviour. a brief mention of these follows:


Almost all human behaviour is motivated. It requires no motivation to grow hair, but getting a hair cut does, motives prompt people to action. Hence, these are at the very heart of motivational process. Motives provide an activating thrust towards reaching a goal.


Motives are generally directed towards goals, motives generally create a state of physiological or psychological imbalance attaining goals restores balance.


Behaviour is a series of activities to be undertaken. Behaviour is directed to achieve a goal.


The following salient features of motivation explain its nature.

1. Motivation is a psychological concept

The needs of persons influence his behaviour. A subordinate, whose needs have been fully satisfied, feels mentally relieved. The quantum of tangible benefits provides. E.g. higher pay to a subordinate. May not actually determined mental satisfaction to an employee and induce him to work harder. Motivation thus has something to do with the psychological of the employees.

2. Motivation is always total and not piece-meal

It means that a person cannot be motivated in installments. An employee will not be motivated if some of his needs are partly satisfied. For example, if an employee awaits a transfer to his native place and is also due to get his promotion, he will not feel motivated if only one of the benefits is sanctioned. It is therefore, the duty of the employer to grant any benefits to his employees fully as and when it is due.

3. Motivation may be Financial or Non-Financial

An employee may be motivated through financial or non-financial incentives. Financial incentives are the monetary benefits provided top an employee in the form of higher pay, bonus, commission, etc.

Non-financial incentives are the non-monetary benefits such as greater decision making authority, better designation and so on.

4. Method of motivation may be Positive as well as Negative

May people think that the method of motivation should always be positive, it may even be negative. The method is positive if it is in the form of higher pay, greater authority, better designation, etc. The method of motivation is negative in the following cases.

← Issue of memo to a worker showing negligence
← Placing a worker who is shirking duties under suspension ← Pay-cut
← Imposing...

Bibliography: ← Agarwal, R.D., “Dynamics of personnel Management in India”, New Delhi, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing company, 1977.
← C.B. Mamoria, S.V. Gankar “Personnel Management”, Himalaya Publishing House, 2001.
← S.S. Khanka, “Human Resource Development”, Sultan Chand & company Ltd., 2003.
← P. Subbao rao, “Essential of Human resource Management and industrial relations”, Himala Publishing House, 2008.
← D.C. Tripathi, “Human Resource Development”, Sultan Chand & Sons Publications, 2003.
← C.R. Kothari, “Research Methodology Methods & Techniques”, New age international publishers, 2004.
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