1 Theories of Motivation
Motivation is regarded as one of the most important areas of study in the field of organizational behavior (Cadwallader, S. K. 2003). In a general way, the term motivation theory is concerned with the processes that describe how and why human behavior is directed and activated. How to improve and enhance the industry or company is based on how to motivate employees, which is an effective method to increase competitive businesses’ advantage and extend their value (Rahman, M., et al. 2013). It means all personal factors and forces that are responsible for the fulfillment of some performance, actions and persistence level of the employees in the working space. Connection between the performance of the employees and their motivation is obvious. People can get a higher level of the performance only through the effective motivating of employees (Mirea, V., et al. 2012). Therefore, there are a number of views on the topic of what motivates the workers, such as Maslow's needs hierarchy theory, Victor Vroom’s Expectancy Theory, McClelland's learned needs theory and Four-drive Theory. In spite of so many theories, Maslow’s theory of hierarchy of need and McClelland’s theory of learned needs will be discussed in this article. Compared the two theories，it seems that McClelland’s theory is more appropriate for the level of employee motivation in the workplace. 2 Maslow’s needs hierarchy theory
The most famous theory of human motivation is Maslow’s needs hierarchy theory. As mentioned in Maddi (1977), Maslow points out that these needs aims, to drive and motivate people increase and decrease tension. It is into a hierarchy of five basic categories: physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, esteem needs and self-actualization needs. It ranked from a lowest level to a highest level. The physiological need is the basic human requirements to sustain their own survival, including hunger, thirst and shelter. If these needs cannot be satisfied, the survival of humanity will be threatened. In this sense, the physiological need is the most powerful driving force to promote the people’s action. Safety needs is a human necessity for their own security and stability. Maslow believed that the whole organism of human is a pursuit of security mechanisms. Social needs include two aspects. Firstly, the need for love is an essential element that everyone needs to maintain friendship and loyalty with partners and colleagues. Secondly, the need to belong makes people has a feeling of a group belonging the willingness to become a member of the group and mutual concern and care. Esteem needs means that everyone demands a stable social status, the individual's ability and achievements recognized by society. Maslow believed that people satisfy esteem needs can make people to be confident, enthusiastic social experience into their living usefulness and value. A self-actualization need is the highest level of need and it is the realization of personal goals, ambitions and their individual capabilities to the maximum extent commensurate with their ability to complete with all the things necessary. In another word, a capable person finished his work and this will make them feel happiness. Maslow suggested that method to satisfy the need of self-realization is taken varies. Rouse (2004) stated that the needs for self-realization is in the efforts to achieve their potential make themselves more desirable to become their own characters. The benefit of Maslow’s needs hierarchy theory is when person satisfies a lower level need, the next higher need becomes motivator. With a need to meet, people will have a need for a higher level, and have the ability to complete the new requirements. (Gambrel, P. A. and R. Cianci 2003). However, in different organization, different needs of employees and staff are full of differences in different periods and often change. Although studies (Zhang,2010; FENG,1996; HU,2003) have shown this method...
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