Motivation

Topics: Motivation, Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Psychology Pages: 10 (3407 words) Published: March 5, 2014
Motivation is the driving force that causes the flux from desire to will in life. For example: a flower with no water still desires for water to sustain life; however, due to its incapability to move and get water, the flower cannot will for water, hence, suffering from a break in the driving force of motivation; it is not to say, however, that, necessarily, the flower lacks the driving force; therefore, all life can said to have, at its very minimal, the igniting spark of motivation. It can be considered a psychological state that compels or reinforces an action toward a desired goal. For example, hunger is a motivation that elicits a desire to eat. Motivation has been shown to have roots in physiological, behavioral, cognitive, and social areas. Motivation may be rooted in a basic impulse to optimize well-being, minimize physical pain and maximize pleasure. It can also originate from specific physical needs such as eating, sleeping or resting, and sex. Motivation is an inner drive to behave or act in a certain manner. "It's the difference between waking up before dawn to pound the pavement and lazing around the house all day."[1] These inner conditions such as wishes, desires and goals, activate to move in a particular direction in behaviour.Rational motivations[edit] The idea that human beings are rational and human behaviour is guided by reason is an old one. However, recent research (on Satisficing for example) has significantly undermined the idea of homo economicus or of perfect rationality in favour of a more bounded rationality. The field of behavioural economics is particularly concerned with the limits of rationality in economic agents. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation[edit]

Motivation can be divided into two types: intrinsic (internal) motivation and extrinsic (external) motivation. Intrinsic motivation
Intrinsic motivation refers to motivation that is driven by an interest or enjoyment in the task itself, and exists within the individual rather than relying on external pressures or a desire for reward. Intrinsic motivation has been studied since the early 1970s.The phenomenon of intrinsic motivation was first acknowledged within experimental studies of animal behavior. In these studies, it was evident that the organisms would engage in playful and curiosity driven behaviors in the absence of reward. Intrinsic motivation is a natural motivational tendency and is a critical element in cognitive, social, and physical development.[5] Students who are intrinsically motivated are more likely to engage in the task willingly as well as work to improve their skills, which will increase their capabilities.[6] Students are likely to be intrinsically motivated if they: attribute their educational results to factors under their own control, also known as autonomy believe they have the skills to be effective agents in reaching their desired goals, also known as self-efficacy beliefs are interested in mastering a topic, not just in achieving good grades Extrinsic motivation

Extrinsic motivation refers to the performance of an activity in order to attain an outcome, whether or not that activity is also intrinsically motivated. Extrinsic motivation comes from outside of the individual. Common extrinsic motivations are rewards (for example money or grades) for showing the desired behavior, and the threat of punishment following misbehavior. Competition is in an extrinsic motivator because it encourages the performer to win and to beat others, not simply to enjoy the intrinsic rewards of the activity. A cheering crowd and the desire to win a trophy are also extrinsic incentives.[7] Comparison of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation

Social psychological research has indicated that extrinsic rewards can lead to overjustification and a subsequent reduction in intrinsic motivation. In one study demonstrating this effect, children who expected to be (and were) rewarded with a ribbon and a gold star for drawing pictures spent less...
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