A motive is a reason for doing something. Motivation is concerned with the strength and direction of behavior and the factors that influence people to behave in certain ways. The term ‘motivation’ can refer variously to the goals individuals have, the ways in which individuals chose their goals and the ways in which others try to change their behavior.
Motivating other people is about getting them to move in the direction you want them to go in order to achieve a result. Motivating yourself is about setting the direction independently and then taking a course of action that will ensure that you get there. Motivation can be described as goal-directed behavior. People are motivated when they expect that a course of action is likely to lead to the attainment of a goal and a valued reward – one that satisfies their needs and wants.
The three components of motivation, Arnold et al (1991)
1. Direction – what a person is trying to do.
2. Effort – how hard a person is trying.
3. Persistence – how long a person keeps on trying.
Types of motivation
Intrinsic motivation can arise from the self-generated factors that influence people’s behavior. It is not created by external incentives. It can take the form of motivation by the work itself when individuals feel that their work is important, interesting and challenging and provides them with a reasonable degree of autonomy (freedom to act), opportunities to achieve and advance, and scope to use and develop their skills and abilities. Deci and Ryan (1985) suggested that intrinsic motivation is based on the needs to be competent and self-determining (that is, to have a choice).
Intrinsic motivation can be enhanced by job or role design. According to an early writer on the significance of the motivational impact of job design (Katz, 1964): ‘The job itself must provide sufficient variety, sufficient complexity, sufficient challenge and sufficient skill to engage the...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document