Motivation - is the process encouraging people to work. There are many different aspects of the theory of motivation, and they are: 1. Historically, the early views on motivation to work, such as the policy of "carrot and stick". The adherents of this view think that man is by nature lazy, sly, selfish, wants to give less and get more, hence there is a need to constantly force him to work and systematically encouraged to achieve high results. 2. Content theories of motivation (as an incentive to work discusses the inner satisfaction of man, his needs). 3. Procedural theories of motivation (motivation occurs during labor process). Let us consider each of the theories. The content theories of motivation include: • A. Maslow’s theory;
• K. Alderfer's theory;
• D. McClelland theory;
• F. Hertzberg’s theory;
A Maslow (1908-1970) provides the following hierarchy that makes a need for person to work. And Maslow (1908-1970) offers the following hierarchy inducing the person requirements to work: • Physiological needs (hunger, thirst)
• Needs for safety, stability and confidence in the future • Needs for love, participation, communication
• Needs for recognition and self-confirmation
• Needs for self-actualization
A. Maslow assumed that needs for this hierarchy arise gradually. Satisfying primary requirements, the person gradually becomes more motivated. People not simply satisfy one need for another, but move up, changing the importance for these or those needs. Self-actualization — is the highest degree of motivating the person; his desire and strong-willed actions. Self actualization — means to become a person that individual wants to be, reach the maximum level of realization that potentially available. The problem is that: • The person often doesn't know about the abilities, mission or talent • The person knows about the abilities, but doesn't want to develop them into work. (The will is weak) • The person knows about the abilities, but can't develop them into work for a number of reasons (material, physical, etc.) According to A. Maslow, the highest level of motivation can reach only about 1% of all people. According to K. Alderfer's theory of need the person can be combined in three separate groups: • Needs for existence (safety, physiological)
• Needs for communication (in belongings to any group and participation in any business, aspiration to be the family member, to have friends, colleagues, etc.) • The need for growth (need for recognition, self-assertion and self-improvement) These requirements are also hierarchical, but movement can go in both directions (unlike Maslow's hierarchy) • Up, if the previous need is satisfied.
• Down, if they don’t satisfied with higher level.
In his theory of acquired needs D. McClelland proceeded from the fact that the needs are acquired under the influence of life events, experience, and training and includes: • The need for achievement (the desire to self-set goals, more effectively than before, to reach them); • The needs of complicity (the desire for friendly relations with others, communication, working with people); • The need to dominate (the first group of individuals willing to rule for the sake of ruling, the second - to achieve goals). This system needs no strict hierarchy (as in previous theories) its elements have a mutual influence. Senior Manager, on one hand, should help to meet prevailing needs of employees and on the other hand - to promote development of those that are most needed for the labor process. For example, the need to achieve a goal of ruling with the development needs of complicity or achievements can achieve greater results. In theory, F.Herzberg points out the following two groups of factors: • External or hygiene (or health factors) - wages, working conditions, status, mode, interpersonal relationships, the degree of control over the work; • Motivating - growth opportunities, recognition, promotion, work. F....
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