MOTIVATION AT WORK
THIS IS THE FIRST OF TWO CHAPTERS ON MOTIVATION, BEHAVIOR, AND PERFORMANCE. THIS CHAPTER ADDRESSES THE EARLY CONTENT THEORIES OF MOTIVATION THAT ARE RELATED TO THE INTERNAL FACTORS THAT EXPLAIN BEHAVIOR. MASLOW'S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS AND MCGREGOR'S ASSUMPTIONS ARE DISCUSSED AND COMPARED. MCCLELLAND'S NEED THEORY IS PRESENTED, FOLLOWED BY A DISCUSSION OF HERZBERG'S TWO-FACTOR THEORY OF HYGIENE FACTORS AND MOTIVATORS. PROCESS THEORIES CONTAINED IN THIS CHAPTER INCLUDE EQUITY THEORY, SOCIAL EXCHANGE THEORY, AND EXPECTANCY THEORY.
After reading this chapter, you should be able to do the following:
Explain how Theory X and Theory Y relate to Maslow's hierarchy of needs. 3.
Discuss the needs for achievement, power, and affiliation. 4.
Describe the two-factor theory of motivation.
Describe how inequity influences individual motivation and behavior. 6.
Explain seven different strategies for resolving inequity. 7.
Describe the expectancy theory of motivation.
Describe the cultural differences in motivation.
CHAPTER 5 INTRODUCES THE FOLLOWING KEY TERMS:
need for achievement
need for power
need for affiliation
THE CHAPTER SUMMARIZED
I. THINKING AHEAD: NONCOMPLIANCE AS A HIDDEN HEALTH THREAT
MOTIVATION AND WORK BEHAVIOR
Motivation is the process of arousing and sustaining goal-directed behavior. Motivation theories attempt to explain and predict observable behavior. Motivation theories may be classified as internal, process, or external theories. This is one of the most complex topics in organizational behavior because of the large number of variables that affect motivation.
Motivation research is increasingly specific, and examines smaller portions of the larger theories. Writers have looked for internal, value-oriented reasons for motivation that would relate to the meaning of work for society. The Protestant ethic was related to the concept of working hard in order to secure a place in heaven. In contrast, Freud developed psychoanalysis as a method of probing the subconscious mind to understand a person’s motives and needs.
Early scholars assumed that self-interest and economic gain motivated people. The Hawthorne studies revealed the importance of social and interpersonal motivation. Early theories of motivation typically took one of two perspectives. The first perspective was that people acted out of self-interest for material gain. The second perspective suggested that people act in ways that satisfy their emotional needs. Adam Smith's basic assumption was that people are motivated by self-interest for economic gain. Therefore, employees will be most productive when motivated by self-interest. Self-interest refers to seek one’s own best interest and benefit. Frederick Taylor believed that the conflict between management and employees was over how to divide profits. These early ideas stand in contrast to newer theories of motivation.
MASLOW’S NEED HIERARCHY
The Hierarchy of Needs
The needs hierarchy divided motivation into five levels of needs to be satisfied. Maslow compared the lower level of this hierarchy to unsatisfied employees, and suggested that as people satisfy needs on one level, they progress to the next level of need as motivation for behavior.
Theory X and Theory Y
McGregor utilized the needs hierarchy to develop polarized assumptions about workers based on whether they are motivated by lower order needs or by higher...
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