Motiv Emot DOI 10.1007/s11031-012-9336-z
Self-determination at work: Understanding the role of leader-member exchange Laura M. Graves • Margaret M. Luciano
Ó Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012
Abstract Integrating self-determination theory (SDT) and leader-member exchange (LMX) theory, we explore the role of the leader in facilitating employee self-determination. We test a model of the linkages between employees’ leadermember exchanges, psychological need satisfaction (i.e., satisfaction of autonomy, competence, and relatedness needs), autonomous motivation, and attitudinal outcomes. We posit that high-quality leader-member exchanges facilitate satisfaction of employees’ fundamental psychological needs, which, in turn, enhance autonomous motivation and outcomes. Results for 283 working professionals supported this notion. Structural equation modeling indicated that the employee’s perception of the quality of the LMX was positively related to satisfaction of the needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness. Satisfaction of competence and autonomy needs was positively related to autonomous motivation, which, in turn, was associated with higher levels of job satisfaction, affective organizational commitment, and subjective vitality. Our ﬁndings accentuate the role of leader-employee relationships in creating self-determination at work, and reinforce the importance of self-determination for employee attitudes and well-being. Limitations, implications, and directions for future research are discussed.
Keywords Self-determination theory Á Leader-member exchange Á Need satisfaction Á Motivation
Introduction Although the concept of self-determination is certainly not new (e.g., Deci and Ryan 1985), organizational scholars have recently begun to emphasize its importance for opti´ mal employee functioning and well-being at work (Gagne and Deci 2005; Van den Broeck et al. 2008a). Selfdetermination refers to self- (vs. other-) caused action (Wehmeyer et al. 2009). Self-determined individuals are ‘‘authors’’ of their own behaviors; they experience their actions as volitional, intentional, and self-initiated. Self-determination theory (SDT) (Deci and Ryan 1985, ´ 2000; Gagne and Deci 2005; Ryan and Deci 2000, 2002) is arguably the most widely-recognized framework for understanding the dynamics of self-determination at work. ´ SDT (Deci and Ryan 1985, 2000; Gagne and Deci 2005; Ryan and Deci 2000) outlines the conditions and processes that facilitate self-determined behavior. Recent work on self-determination in the workplace stresses the importance of psychological need satisfaction and autonomous moti´ vation for self-determination (Gagne and Deci 2005; Van den Broeck et al. 2008a). Need satisfaction refers to the satisfaction of the indi´ vidual’s basic psychological needs (Gagne and Deci 2005; Ryan and Deci 2002). Basic psychological needs are viewed as universal and essential for optimal human functioning (Deci and Ryan 2000). They consist of the needs for competence (effectance), autonomy (a sense of volition), and relatedness (connection). Autonomous motivation is posited to be a key mechanism by which need satisfaction inﬂuences employees’
L. M. Graves (&) Graduate School of Management, Clark University, 950 Main St., Worcester, MA 01610, USA e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org M. M. Luciano Department of Management, School of Business, University of Connecticut, 2100 Hillside Rd. Unit 1041, Storrs, CT 06269-1041, USA e-mail: email@example.com
´ outcomes (Gagne and Deci 2005; Milyavskaya and Koestner 2011). Autonomous motivation is a form of motivation or self-regulation in which individuals act from their deep values, goals and interests. Autonomously motivated individuals pursue actions that are concordant or consistent with the underlying self; their behaviors are experienced as selfdetermined (Ryan and Deci 2000; Sheldon and Elliot 1998, 1999). Recent...
References: Avolio, B. J. (1999). Full leadership development: Building the vital forces in organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Avolio, B. J., Walumbwa, F. O., & Weber, T. J. (2009). Leadership: Current theories, research, and future directions. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 421–449. Baard, P. P., Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2004). Intrinsic need satisfaction: A motivational basis of performance and well-being in two work settings. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 34, 2045–2068. Baron, R. A. (2008). The role of affect in the entrepreneurial process. Academy of Management Review, 33, 328–340. Bartholomew, K. J., Ntoumanis, N., Ryan, R. M., Bosch, J. A., & Thøgersen-Ntoumani, C. (2011a). Self-determination theory and diminished functioning: The role of interpersonal control and psychological need thwarting. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 37, 1459–1473. Bartholomew, K. J., Ntoumanis, N., Ryan, R. M., & ThøgersenNtoumani, C. (2011b). Psychological need thwarting in the sport context: Development and initial validation of a psychometric scale. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 33, 75–102. Bartholomew, K. J., Ntoumanis, N., & Thøgersen-Ntoumani, C. (2010). The controlling interpersonal style in a coaching context: Development and initial validation of a psychometric scale. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 32, 193–216.
Baruch, Y., & Holton, B. (2008). Survey response rate levels and trends in organizational research. Human Relations, 61, 1138–1160. Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Free Press. Bass, B. M. (1990). Bass & Stogdill’s Handbook of Leadership: Theory, research, and managerial applications (3rd ed.). New York: The Free Press. Basu, R., & Green, S. G. (1997). Leader-member exchange and transformational leadership: An empirical examination of innovative behaviors in leader-member dyads. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 27, 477–499. Bauer, T. N., & Green, S. G. (1996). Development of leader-member exchange: A longitudinal test. Academy of Management Journal, 39, 1538–1567. Bentler, P. (1990). Comparative ﬁt indexes in structural models. Psychological Bulletin, 10, 238–246. Bono, J. E., & Judge, T. A. (2003). Self-concordance at work: Toward understanding the motivational effects of transformational leaders. Academy of Management Journal, 46, 554–571. Bostic, T. J., Rubio, D. M., & Hood, M. (2000). A validation of the subjective vitality scale using structural equation modeling. Social Indicators Research, 52, 313–324. Cammann, C., Fichman, M., Jenkins, D., & Klesh, J. (1983). Assessing the attitudes and perceptions of organizational members. In S. Seashore, E. Lawler, P. Mirvis, & C. Cammann (Eds.), Assessing organizational change: A guide to methods, measures, and practices (pp. 71–138). New York: Wiley. Chen, G., Kirkman, B. L., Kanfer, R., Allen, D., & Rosen, B. (2007). A multilevel study of leadership, empowerment, and performance in teams. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 331–346. Cogliser, C. C., & Schriesheim, C. A. (2000). Exploring work unit context and leader-member exchange: A multi-level perspective. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21, 487–511. Cogliser, C. C., Schriesheim, C. A., Scandura, T. A., & Gardner, W. L. (2009). Balance in leader and follower perceptions of leadermember exchange: Relationships with performance and work attitudes. Leadership Quarterly, 20, 452–465. Cycyota, C. S., & Harrison, D. A. (2006). Techniques over time what (not) to expect when surveying executives: A meta-analysis of top manager response rates and techniques over time. Organizational Research Methods, 9, 133–160. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and selfdetermination in human behavior. New York: Plenum. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The ‘‘what’’ and ‘‘why’’ of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227–268. ´ Deci, E. L., Ryan, R. M., Gagne, M., Leone, D. R., Usanov, J., & Kornazheva, B. P. (2001). Need satisfaction, motivation, and well-being in the work organizations of a former Eastern Bloc Country: A cross-cultural study of self-determination. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 930–942. Deci, E. L., Vallerand, R. J., Pelletier, L. G., & Ryan, R. M. (1991). Motivation and education: The self-determination perspective. Educational Psychologist, 26, 325–346. Dulebohn, J. H., Bommer, W. H., Liden, R. C., Brouer, R. L., & Ferris, G. R. (2012). A meta-analysis of antecedents and consequences of leader-member exchange: Integrating the past with an eye toward the future. Journal of Management, 38, 1715–1759. Eisenberger, R. A., Stinglhamber, F., Vandenberghe, C., Sucharski, I. L., & Rhoades, L. (2002). Perceived supervisor support: Contributions of perceived organizational support and employee retention. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 565–573. Erdogan, B., & Enders, J. (2007). Support from the top: Supervisors’ perceived organizational support as a moderator of leadermember exchange to satisfaction and performance relationships. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 321–330.
Motiv Emot Erdogan, B., & Liden, R. C. (2002). Social exchanges in the workplace: A review of recent developments and future research directions in leader-member exchange theory. In L. L. Neider & C. A. Schriesheim (Eds.), Leadership: Research in management series (pp. 65–114). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing. Erez, A., & Isen, A. M. (2002). The inﬂuence of positive affect on the components of expectancy motivation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 1055–1067. Fredrickson, B. L. (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. American Psychologist, 56, 218–226. Fredrickson, B. L., & Joiner, T. (2002). Positive emotions trigger upward spirals toward emotional well-being. Psychological Science, 13, 172–175. Furst, S. A., & Cable, D. M. (2008). Employee resistance to organizational change: Managerial tactics and leader-member exchange. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93, 453–462. ´ Gagne, M. (2003). The role of autonomy support and autonomy orientation in the engagement of prosocial behavior. Motivation and Emotion, 27, 199–223. ´ Gagne, M., Chemolli, E., Forest, J., & Koestner, R. (2008). A temporal analysis of the relation between organisational commitment and work motivation. Psychologica Belgica, 48, 219–241. ´ Gagne, M., & Deci, E. L. (2005). Self-determination theory and work motivation. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26, 331–362. ´ ´ Gagne, M., Forest, J., Gilbert, M., Aube, C., Morin, E., & Malorni, A. (2010). The motivation at work scale: Validation in two languages. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 70, 628–646. ´ ´ Gagne, M., Senecal, C. B., & Koestner, R. (1997). Proximal job characteristics, feelings of empowerment, and intrinsic motivation: A multidimensional model. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 27, 1222–1240. Gerstner, C. R., & Day, D. V. (1997). Meta-analytic review of leadermember exchange theory: Correlates and construct issues. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82, 827–844. Gillet, N., Fouquereau, E., Forest, J., Brunault, P., & Colombat, P. (2012). The impact of organizational factors on psychological needs and their relations with well-being. Journal of Business and Psychology, 27, 437–450. Gouldner, A. W. (1960). The norm of reciprocity: A preliminary statement. American Sociological Review, 25, 161–178. Graen, G. B., Hui, C., & Taylor, E. (2006). Experience-based learning about LMX leadership and fairness in project teams: A dyadic directional approach. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 5, 448–460. Graen, G. B., & Scandura, T. A. (1987). Toward a psychology of dyadic organizing. In B. Staw & L. L. Cumming (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior (Vol. 9, pp. 175–208). Greenwich, CT: JAI. Graen, G. B., & Uhl-Bien, M. (1995). Relationship-based approach to leadership: Development of leader-member exchange (LMX) theory of leadership over 25 years: Applying a multi-level multidomain perspective. Leadership Quarterly, 6, 219–247. Gregarus, G. J., & Diefendorff, J. M. (2009). Different ﬁts satisfy different needs: Linking person-environment ﬁt to employee commitment and performance using self-determination theory. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94, 465–477. Halpin, A. W., & Winer, B. J. (1957). A factorial study of the leader behavior descriptions. In R. M. Stogdill & A. E. Coons (Eds.), Leader behavior: Its description and measurement. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University, Bureau of Business Research. Hambrick, D. C., Geletkanycz, M., & Fredrickson, J. (1993). Top executive commitment to the status quo: Some tests of its determinants. Strategic Management Journal, 14, 401–418. Henderson, D. J., Wayne, S. J., Shore, L. M., Bommer, W. H., & Tetrick, L. E. (2008). Leader-member exchange, differentiation, and psychological contract fulﬁllment: A multilevel examination. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93, 1208–1219. Hogg, M. A., Martin, R., & Weeden, K. (2004). Leader-member relations and social identity. In D. van Knippenberg & M. A. Hogg (Eds.), Leadership and power: Identity processes in groups and organizations (pp. 18–33). London: Sage. House, R. J., Hanges, P. J., Javidan, M., Dorfman, P. W., & Gupta, V. (2004). Leadership, culture, and organizations: The GLOBE study of 62 societies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Ilardi, B. C., Leone, D., Kasser, T., & Ryan, R. M. (1993). Employee and supervisor ratings of motivation: Main effects and discrepancies associated with job satisfaction and adjustment in a factory setting. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 23, 1789–1805. Ilies, R., Nahrgang, J. D., & Morgeson, F. P. (2007). Leader-member exchange and citizenship behaviors: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 269–277. Isen, A. M., & Baron, R. A. (1991). Positive affect as a factor in organizational behavior. In L. L. Cummings & B. M. Staw (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior (Vol. 13, pp. 1–53). Greenwich, CT: JAI. Joseph, D. L., Newman, D. A., & Sin, H. P. (2011). Leader-member exchange (LMX) measurement: Evidence of consensus, construct breadth, and discriminant validity. In D. Bergh & D. Ketchen Jr (Eds.), Building methodological bridges: Research methodology in strategy and management (Vol. 6, pp. 89–135). Bingley, UK: Emerald. Judge, T. A., Bono, J. E., Erez, A., & Locke, E. A. (2005). Core self-evaluations and job and life satisfaction: The role of selfconcordance and goal attainment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 257–268. Judge, T. A., & Piccolo, R. F. (2004). Transformational and transactional leadership: A meta-analytic test of their relative validity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89, 755–768. Kenny, D. A. (1977). Correlation and causality. New York: Wiley. Kenny, D. A., Kashy, D. A., & Bolger, N. (1998). Data analysis in social psychology. In D. T. Gilbert, S. T. Fiske, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), Handbook of social psychology (4th ed., pp. 233–265). Boston: McGraw-Hill. Landis, R. S., Beal, D. J., & Tesluk, P. E. (2000). A comparison of approaches to forming composite measures in structural equation models. Organizational Research Methods, 3, 186–207. Liden, R. C., Bauer, T. N., & Erdogan, B. (2004). The role of leadermember exchange in the dynamic relationship between employer and employee: Implications for employee socialization, leaders, and organization. In J. A. M. Coyle-Shapiro, L. M. Shore, M. S. Taylor, & L. E. Tetrick (Eds.), The employment relationship: Examining psychological and contextual perspectives (pp. 226–250). Oxford, England: Oxford University. Liden, R. C., Erdogan, B., Wayne, S. J., & Sparrowe, R. T. (2006). Leader–member exchange, differentiation, and task interdependence: Implications for individual and group performance. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27, 723–746. Liden, R. C., & Graen, G. (1980). Generalizability of the vertical dyad linkage model of leadership. Academy of Management Journal, 23, 451–465. Liden, R. C., & Maslyn, J. M. (1998). Multidimensionality of leadermember exchange: An empirical assessment through scale development. Journal of Management, 24, 43–72. Liden, R. C., Sparrowe, R. T., & Wayne, S. J. (1997). Leader-member exchange theory: The past and potential for the future. In G. R. Ferris (Ed.), Research in personnel and human resources management (Vol. 15, pp. 47–119). Greenwich, CT: JAI. Liden, R. C., Wayne, S. J., & Sparrowe, R. T. (2000). An examination of the mediating role of psychological empowerment on the
Motiv Emot relations between the job, interpersonal relationships, and work outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85, 407–416. Liden, R. C., Wayne, S. J., & Stilwell, D. (1993). A longitudinal study on the early development of leader-member exchanges. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 662–674. Little, T. D., Cunningham, W. A., Shahar, G., & Widaman, K. F. (2002). To parcel or not to parcel: Exploring the question, weighing the merits. Structural Equation Modeling, 9, 151–173. Lynch, M. R., Plant, R. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2005). Psychological needs and threat to safety: Implications for staff and patients in a psychiatric hospital for youth. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 36, 415–425. Lyubormirsky, S., King, L., & Diener, E. (2005). The beneﬁts of frequent positive affect: Does happiness lead to success? Psychological Bulletin, 131, 803–855. Markham, S. E., Yammarino, F. J., Murry, W. D., & Palanski, M. E. (2010). Leader-member exchange, shared values, and performance: Agreement and levels of analysis do matter. Leadership Quarterly, 21, 469–480. Maslyn, J. M., & Uhl-Bien, M. (2001). Leader-member exchange and its dimensions: Effects of self-effort and other’s effort on relationship quality. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 697–708. Mathieu, J. E., & Taylor, S. R. (2006). Clarifying conditions and decision points for mediational type inferences in Organizational Behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27, 1031–1056. Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1991). A three-component conceptualization of organizational commitment. Human Resources Management Review, 1, 61–89. Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1997). Commitment in the workplace. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Milyavskaya, M., Gingras, I., Mageau, G. A., Koestner, R., Gagnon, H., Fang, J. Q., et al. (2009). Balance across contexts: Importance of balanced need satisfaction across various life domains. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35, 1031–1045. Milyavskaya, M., & Koestner, R. (2011). Psychological needs, motivation, and well-being: A test of self-determination theory across multiple domains. Personality and Individual Differences, 50, 387–391. ´ ´ Muthen, L. K., & Muthen, B. O. (1998–2007). Mplus user’s guide ´ ´ (4th ed.). Los Angeles: Muthen & Muthen. Otis, N., & Pelletier, L. G. (2005). A motivational model of daily hassles, physical symptoms, and future work intentions among police ofﬁcers. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 35, 2193–2214. Perreault, S., Gaudreau, P., Lapointe, M. C., & Lacroix, C. (2007). Does it take three to tango? Psychological need satisfaction and athlete burnout. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 38, 437–450. Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 879–903. Rhoades, L., & Eisenberger, R. (2002). Perceived organizational support: A review of the literature. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 698–714. Richer, S. F., Blanchard, C., & Vallerand, R. J. (2002). A motivational model of work turnover. Journal of Applied Psychology, 32, 2089–2113. Richer, S. F., & Vallerand, R. J. (1995). Supervisors’ interactional styles and subordinates’ intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Journal of Social Psychology, 135, 707–722. Rogelberg, S. G., & Luong, A. (1998). Nonresponse to mailed surveys: A review and guide. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 7, 60–65. Rogelberg, S. G., & Stanton, J. M. (2007). Understanding and dealing with organizational survey nonresponse. Organizational Research Methods, 10, 195–209. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and wellbeing. American Psychologist, 55, 68–78. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2001). On happiness and human potentials: A review of research on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 141–166. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2002). An overview of self-determination theory: An organismic-dialectical perspective. In E. L. Deci & R. M. Ryan (Eds.), Handbook of self-determination research (pp. 3–33). Rochester, NY: University of Rochester. Ryan, R. M., & Frederick, C. M. (1997). On energy, personality, and health: Subjective vitality as a dynamic reﬂection of well-being. Journal of Personality, 65, 529–565. Schriesheim, C. A., Castro, S. L., Zhou, X., & Yammarino, F. J. (2001). The folly of theorizing ‘‘A’’ but testing ‘‘B’’: A selective level-of-analysis review of the ﬁeld and a detailed leadermember exchange illustration. Leadership Quarterly, 12, 515–551. Sheldon, K. M., & Elliot, A. J. (1998). Not all personal goals are personal: Comparing autonomous and controlled reasons for goals as predictors of effort and attainment. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 24, 546–557. Sheldon, K. M., & Elliot, A. J. (1999). Goal striving, need satisfaction, and longitudinal well-being: The self-concordance model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 482–497. Sheldon, K. M., & Kasser, T. (1995). Coherence and congruence: Two aspects of personality integration. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68, 531–543. Sheldon, K. M., & Niemiec, C. P. (2006). It’s not just the amount that counts: Balanced need satisfaction also affects well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91, 331–341. Sheldon, K. M., Ryan, R. M., & Reis, H. T. (1996). What makes for a good day? Competence and autonomy in the day and in the person. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22, 1270–1279. Sherman, K. E., Kennedy, D. M., Woodard, M. S., & McComb, S. A. (2012). Examining the ‘‘exchange’’ in leader-member exchange. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 19, 407–423. Sin, H., Nahrgang, J. D., & Morgeson, F. P. (2009). Understanding why they don’t see eye to eye: An examination of leadermember exchange agreement. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94, 1048–1057. Sparrowe, R. T., & Liden, R. C. (2005). Two routes to inﬂuence: Integrating leader-member exchange and social network perspectives. Administrative Science Quarterly, 50, 505–535. Spector, P. E. (1997). Job satisfaction: Application, assessment, causes, and consequences. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Tugade, M. M., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2004). Resilient individuals use positive emotions to bounce back from negative emotional experiences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86, 320–333. University of Rochester, Department of Psychology, Self-Determination Theory, Basic Psychological Needs Scale. Retrieved August 1, 2009 from http://www.psych.rochester.edu/SDT/mea sures/bpns_description.php. Vallerand, R. J., Blanchard, C., Mageau, G. A., Koestner, R., Ratelle, ˆ ´ C., Leonard, M., et al. (2003). Les passions de l’Ame: On obsessive and harmonious passion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 756–767. Vallerand, R. J., & Ratelle, C. F. (2002). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation: A hierarchical model. In E. L. Deci & R. M. Ryan (Eds.), Handbook of self-determination research (pp. 37–63). Rochester, NY: University of Rochester.
Motiv Emot Van den Broeck, A., Vansteenkiste, M., & De Witte, H. (2008a). Selfdetermination theory: A theoretical and empirical overview in occupational health psychology. In J. Houdmont & S. Leka (Eds.), Occupational health psychology: European perspectives on research, education, and practice (pp. 63–88). Nottingham: Nottingham University. Van den Broeck, A., Vansteenkiste, M., De Witte, H., & Lens, W. (2008b). Explaining the relationships between job characteristics, burnout, and engagement: The role of basic psychological need satisfaction. Work & Stress, 22, 277–294. Van den Broeck, A., Vansteenkiste, M., De Witte, H., Soenens, B., & Lens, W. (2010). Capturing autonomy, competence, and relatedness at work: Construction and initial validation of the workrelated basic need satisfaction scale. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 83, 981–1002. Vansteenkiste, M., Neyrinck, B., Niemiec, C. P., Soenens, B., De Witte, H., & Van den Broeck, A. (2007). On the relations among work value orientations, psychological need satisfaction, and job outcomes: A self-determination theory approach. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 80, 251–277. Wayne, S. J., Liden, R. C., & Sparrowe, R. T. (1994). Developing leader-member exchanges: The inﬂuence of gender and ingratiation. American Behavioral Scientist, 37, 697–714. Wayne, S. J., Shore, L. M., & Liden, R. C. (1997). Perceived organizational support and leader-member exchange: A social exchange perspective. Academy of Management Journal, 40, 82–111. Wehmeyer, M. L., Little, T. D., Sergeant, J. (2009). Self-determination. In C. R. Snyder & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), Oxford handbook of positive psychology (pp. 357–366). Oxford: Oxford University.
Please join StudyMode to read the full document