McClelland's Human Motivation Theory
Discovering What Drives Members of Your Team
Do you know what motivates team members?
One of your team members recently created a report that was so thorough and well-written that the board of directors asked you to make sure that she was praised for her efforts. So, at your monthly staff meeting, you stood up in front of the group, and congratulated her on her achievement, and for the good impression she made for the team. However, instead of smiling and appreciating the attention, she looked embarrassed. She lowered her head, and as soon as she could, she left and went to her office. What did you do wrong?
Managing a group of people with different personalities is never easy. But if you're managing or leading a team, it's essential to know what motivates your people, how they respond to feedback and praise, and what tasks fit them well. David McClelland's Human Motivation Theory gives you a way of identifying people's motivating drivers. This can then help you to give praise and feedback effectively, assign them suitable tasks, and keep them motivated. Using McClelland's theory in the example above would have helped you structure your feedback for the person. You would have known that your team member's main motivational driver is affiliation, which means that she never wants to stand out in a crowd. So, your feedback would have been far more effective, and appreciated, if you had praised her in private. In this article, we'll explore McClelland's Human Motivation Theory, and look at how you can use it to manage and lead your team more effectively.
McClelland's Human Motivation Theory is also known as Three Needs Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, Motivational Needs Theory, and Learned Needs Theory.
Understanding McClelland's Theory
In the early 1940s, Abraham Maslow created his theory of needs. This identified the basic needs that human beings have, in order of their importance – physiological needs; safety needs; and the needs for belonging, self-esteem and "self-actualization". Then, in the early 1960s, David McClelland built on this work by identifying three motivators that we all have. According to McClelland, these motivators are learned (which is why this theory is sometimes called the Learned Needs Theory). McClelland says that, regardless of our gender, culture, or age, we all have three motivating drivers, and one of these will be our dominant motivating driver. This dominant motivator is largely dependent on our culture and life experiences. The three motivators are achievement, affiliation, and power. People will have different characteristics depending on their dominant motivator. These characteristics are as follows:
| Characteristics of This Person
Has a strong need to set and accomplish challenging goals. *
Takes calculated risks to accomplish their goals. *
Likes to receive regular feedback on their progress and achievements. *
Often likes to work alone.
Wants to belong to the group. *
Wants to be liked, and will often go along with whatever the rest of the group wants to do. *
Favors collaboration over competition. *
Doesn't like high risk or uncertainty.
Wants to control and influence others. *
Likes to win arguments. *
Enjoys competition and winning. *
Enjoys status and recognition.
Those with a strong power motivator are often divided into two groups: personal and institutional. People with a personal power drive want to control others, while people with an institutional power drive like to organize the efforts of a team to further the company's goals. As you can probably imagine, those with an institutional power need are usually more desirable as team members!
Using the Theory
McClelland's theory can help you to identify the dominant motivators of people on your team. You can then use this information to...
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