Leadership & Motivation, Motivation Theories of Needs Report

Topics: Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Motivation, Psychology Pages: 6 (1751 words) Published: June 7, 2013
Arab International University
Faculty of Business Administration
Management Department
Leadership & Motivation
Instructor: Dr. Serene Dalati
Report Title: Motivation Theories of Needs

Submitted by: Ali Kherbeck
ID no.: 200911103
E-mail: alikherbeck@gmail.com
Date: 29/1/2013

Student Declaration:
I certify that the work contained in this Project was researched and prepared by me. Student Name: Ali Kherbeck Signature: Table of Contents
I. Abstract
II. Introduction
III. About the Theories
* Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
* Alderfer’s ERG Theory
* Herzberg Two-Factor Theory
IV. Pros & Cons
* Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
* Alderfer’s ERG Theory
* Herzberg Two-Factor Theory
V. Organizational Implementation
* Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
* Alderfer’s ERG Theory
* Herzberg Two-Factor Theory
VI. Compare & Contrast
VII. Conclusion

Any leader must be aware at least of the basic principles of motivation, motivation nowadays is a separate science that is linked somehow to psychology. In order for leaders to motivate people they must learn something about the old school theories of motivation; Maslow’s, Alderfer’s and Herzberg’s. These theories are very similar and each one is a development of the previous one, in another words, each one is built on the other, they have their differences though. Introduction

The old school theories of motivation, or the Classics, are originally psychological theories that was created and developed by psychologists, but they are used generally in management and especially in the organizational behavior or motivation. Managers use them to find out what motivates employees depending on their psychological natures. About the Theories

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology proposed by Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper "A Theory of Human Motivation". Maslow subsequently extended the idea to include his observations of humans' innate curiosity. Maslow's theory was fully expressed in his 1954 book Motivation and Personality. Alderfer’s ERG Theory

Alderfer’s ERG theory is considered to be a further development of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, categorizing the hierarchy into the ERG theory (Existence, Relatedness, and Growth), which was published in1972. The theory was made by American psychologist Clayton Paul Alderfer. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory

Also known as Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory and Dual-Factor Theory. It was developed by Frederick Herzberg in 1959 in his book “The Motivation to Work”

Pros & Cons
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Pros| Cons|
Maslow rejected the externally oriented theories of psychology such as psychoanalysis as a main driver for motivation by assuming that an internal drive is present in all. He devised a universal system that shows in different ways at different times in each individual. The Hierarchy of Human Needs is a powerful tool for understanding human motivation.| The appeal of the model is its simplicity, and its use as a first stab analysis. However, when deeper investigation is required, the interviewer requires skill and understanding. Research on the model remains on-going.| This model takes on a dynamic view when one need is satisfied; others in the hierarchy become stronger. Since a satisfied need is not a motivator, it is essential to adequately time interventions.| Maslow, himself, warned that the model takes into account only 'basic' needs. Other needs, such the need for aesthetics, exist outside the hierarchy.| | Maslow regarded culture as one of the influencing factors that can cause a change in the Hierarchy's order, but the model does not take into account cultural differences.|

Alderfer’s ERG Theory
Pros| Cons|
All three needs have valid and reliable measures for both the levels of desire and satisfaction.| Alderfer’s ERG theory is...
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