Various Theories of Motivation
C. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory of Motivation
In 1959, Frederick Herzberg, a behavioral scientist proposed a two-factor theory or the motivator-hygiene theory. According to Herzberg, there are some job factors that result in satisfaction while there are other job factors that prevent dissatisfaction. According to Herzberg, the opposite of “Satisfaction” is “No satisfaction” and the opposite of “Dissatisfaction” is “No Dissatisfaction”.
FIGURE: Herzberg’s view of satisfaction and dissatisfaction
Satisfaction which is mostly affected by the “motivator factors.” Motivation factors help increase the satisfaction but aren’t that affective on dissatisfaction. Dissatisfaction is the results of the “hygiene factors.” These factors, if absent or inadequate, cause dissatisfaction, but their presence has little effect on long-term satisfaction.
Herzberg classified these job factors into two categories:
Hygiene factors- Hygiene factors are those job factors which are essential for existence of motivation at workplace.
Hygiene – a science of establishment and maintenance of health
These do not lead to positive satisfaction for long-term. But if these factors are absent / if these factors are non-existant at workplace, then they lead to dissatisfaction. •
In other words, hygiene factors are those factors which when adequate/reasonable in a job, pacify the employees and do not make them dissatisfied. These factors are extrinsic to work. •
Hygiene factors are also called as dissatisfiers or maintenance factors as they are required to avoid dissatisfaction. These factors describe the job environment/scenario. •
The hygiene factors symbolized the physiological needs which the individuals wanted and expected to be fulfilled.
Hygiene factors include:
Pay - The pay or salary structure should be appropriate and reasonable. It must be equal and competitive to those in the same industry in the same domain. b)
Company Policies and administrative policies - The company policies should not be too rigid. They should be fair and clear. It should include flexible working hours, dress code, breaks, vacation, etc. c)
Fringe benefits - The employees should be offered health care plans (mediclaim), benefits for the family members, employee help programs, etc. d)
Physical Working conditions - The working conditions should be safe, clean and hygienic. The work equipment should be updated and well-maintained. e)
Status - The employees’ status within the organization should be familiar and retained. f)
Interpersonal relations - The relationship of the employees with his peers, superiors and subordinates should be appropriate and acceptable. There should be no conflict or humiliation element present. g)
Job Security - The organization must provide job security to the employees.
According to Herzberg, the hygiene factors cannot be regarded as motivators. •
The motivational factors yield positive satisfaction.
These factors are inherent to work.
These factors motivate the employees for a superior performance. •
These factors are called satisfiers.
These are factors involved in performing the job.
Employees find these factors intrinsically rewarding.
The motivators symbolized the psychological needs that were perceived as an additional benefit.
Motivational factors include:
Recognition - The employees should be praised and recognized for their accomplishments by the managers. b)
Sense of achievement - The employees must have a sense of achievement. This depends on the job. There must be a fruit of some sort in the job. c)
Growth and promotional opportunities - There must be growth and advancement opportunities in an organization to motivate the employees to perform well. d)
Responsibility - The employees must hold themselves responsible for the work. The managers should give them ownership of...
References: o Brooks, Ian. Organizational Behavior, Harlow England: Prentice Hall, 1999
o Robbins, Stephen P. Organizational Behavior, New jersey: Prentice Hall 2000
o Rollin, Derek. Organizational Behavior and Analysis: An Integrated Approach. Harlow England, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2002
o Rousseau, Denise M. Psychological Contracts in Organizations: Understanding Written and Unwritten Agreements. Carnegie Mellon University, USA: SAGE Publications, Inc., 1995
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