The term ‘motivation’ is derived from the word ‘motive’ which influences the behavior of individuals. Motives are the expression of needs of a human being. Motivation is a process of getting the needs of the people realized to induce them to work for the accomplishment of organizational objectives. Motivation is a behavioral psychological concept. It seeks to understand why people behave the way they do. The intention is to produce goal-oriented behavior. It aims at influencing good result and arises from within the individual. The inner feeling balances the perception of an individual and satisfaction of his needs that influence the direction, volume, behavior limitation and efforts of an individual. Hence motivation is an inducement of inner feeling of an individual. It cannot be forced upon from the outside.
According to Steers and Porter (1991), there are two ways to view motivation. The traditional way is to define motivation as a process of directing (stimulating) people to action in order to accomplish a desired goal. Based on this definition, motivation is the function supervisors perform to get their employees to achieve goals and objectives. The second view looks at individual motivation. Such motivation represents an unsatisfied need that creates a state of tension (disequilibrium), causing the individual to move in a goal-directed pattern towards need-satisfaction and equilibrium. The goal of the behavior is to reduce tension by achieving a goal that will satisfy that need. Both approaches to the study of motivation are motivation. Harmer (2001) defines motivation as some kind of internal drive which pushes someone to do things in order to achieve something. This significantly refers to an individual’s desire and willingness to take action towards the accomplishment of a given task. Invariably, people’s behavior at work is controlled by their intrinsic motives that characterize the work as well as the working environment. The manager’s job becomes one of identifying the right chord to play to influence each group member to achieve the group goals. However, the study of motivation addresses the distinctiveness of each individual, for each individual has a number of motivators (Robert and Hunt, 1991). Armstrong(1998) considers motivation as ‘why people at work behave in the way they do in terms of their efforts and the direction they are taking and what the organization can do to encourage people to apply their efforts and abilities in ways that will further the achievement of the organization’s goals as well as satisfying their own needs.’ Cole (2002) relates this to human behavior and defines it as ‘a process in which people choose between alternative forms of behavior in order to achieve personal goals’. According to Spector (1997:2) job satisfaction is simply how people feel about their job. It is the extent to which people like (satisfaction) or dislike (dissatisfaction) their jobs. As is generally assessed, is an attitudinal variable. In this context, job satisfaction can be considered as a global feeling about the job or as a related constellation of attitudes about various aspects or facets of the job. The management dilemma in many organizations in today’s fast paced technological environment is how managers can improve the motivation of employees, so that companies employ and retain a fulfilled work force that contributes optimally to organizational stakeholders. Essentially, the questions that must be answered by this study are: What makes some employees perform better than others?
What makes some employees seem better satisfied in their jobs than others? In what ways can management improve the motivation of their employees? All organizations are concerned with what should be done to achieve sustained high levels of performance through people. This means that, there is the need to give close attention to how individuals can best be motivated either through such...
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