Hygiene Factors Effect on Motivation and Satisfaction

Topics: Motivation, Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Frederick Herzberg Pages: 6 (2059 words) Published: June 17, 2013
The Hygiene Factor In A Company Commerce Essay
Motivation is a critical factor in individual, group and organisational success. “In broad term motivation can be considered to comprise an individual’s effort, persistence and the direction of the effort .In simpler terms, motivation is the will to perform” (Ian Brooks, 2006). The major researchers whose theories are still valuable for the business students and organisation were Maslow (1954), Herzberg et al. (1959), Vroom (1964), Alderfer (1972), McClelland (1961), and Locke et al. (1981) . If you look at the broader prospective, the researchers theories can be divided into two groups- the content theory and the process theory. Table 3.1 A simple classification of motivation theories

Content theories
Process theories
Two factor theory (Herzberg)
Expectancy theory (Vroom;Porter &Lawler)
Needs hierarchy (Maslow; Alderfer)
Equity theory (Adams)
Achievements needs theory( Mcclelldnd)
Goal theory (Locke)
Attribution theory (Heoder;Kelley)
Table 3.1 (Ian Brooks, 2006) page 50
Herzberg purposed ‘two factor theory of motivation’. He is the first person who developed the concept of job enrichment (1966, 1968). Frederick Herzberg latter on did studies to determine that which factors in an employee work and job environment causes satisfaction and dissatisfaction so that he can better understand employee attitudes and motivation, 203 Pittsburgh were interviewed . In this research he asked them to recall any event which made them feel good and any event which made them feel bad. After analysing the result from all the Accountants he finally figured out that factor responsible for job satisfaction are different from job dissatisfaction. Hezberg called this theory, ‘two factor theory of motivation’. Herzberg found that the factor causing satisfactions are different from the factors causing dissatisfaction. He developed the motivation-hygiene theory to explain his research, he called them motivator factor and hygiene factor. He called the term motivator to satisfiers, and hygiene to non satisfiers. He used the term ‘’hygiene’’ because it is considered as a maintenance factor which are utmost important to avoid dissatisfaction but they do not provide satisfaction by themselves. Herzberg reasoned that the two factors are different from each other so they cannot be treated as opposite of one another. The opposite of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction, but rather it is no satisfaction so similarly the opposite of dissatisfaction is no dissatisfaction. The following table represent of Herzberg Shows the top six factors causing satisfaction and dissatisfaction, listed on the priority from higher level to lower level. TABLE 1: Herzberg’s Motivators and hygiene factors

(Job content)
Hygiene Factors
(Organizational context)
Company policy
Supervisory style
the work itself
Working conditions
Table 1.1: (Buchanan & Huczynski, 2010) p208
From the above table of results, one observes that both the factors which determine satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not part of the work itself, but rather, are external factors. Herzberg often referred to these hygiene factors as “kITA” factors, where KITA is an acronym for Kick in the A…, the process to threat someone to do something or to provide incentives. Herzberg argues that these factors can only provide short-run success because the motivator’s factors that determine whether there is satisfaction or no satisfaction are intrinsic from the job itself, and do not result from carrot and stick incentives. If you look at crux of the matter, financial rewards for the applicants can be higher for both the organisation and individual but more over negatively employment continue and opportunities for the carries progression of individual seems deteriorated through a unilateral re-writing of the psychological contract of employers. . The role of...
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