A) Briefly explain the formal communication channels and spontaneous communication channels?
* Communication channels
Messages are transmitted through channels of communication channels as discussed.
* Formal communication channels, follows the chain of command and is recognized as official. One way to view formal communication within organizations. * Vertical communication is the flow of information both up and down the chain of command. It involves an exchange of messages between two or more levels in the organization. When top-level managers make decisions, create strategic plans, convey directions, and so forth, they are often communicating downward. Downward communication flows from individuals in higher levels of the organization to those in lower levels. The most common forms of downward communication are meetings, official’s memos, policy statements, procedure manuals, information needed to conduct work, and company publications. Information sent downward may include new company goals, job instructions, procedures, and feedback on performance. Studies show that only 20% of an intended messages sent by top-level management is intact by the time it reaches the entry level performance. This information loss occurs for several reasons. First, managers tend to reply too heavily on written channels an avalanche of written material may cause the overload subordinate to ignore some messages. This is especially true with the glut of information stemming from e-communications. Second, the oral face-to-face message, which commands more attention and can provide immediate feedback, is often underutilized. Managers may e-mail the colleague or subordinate down the hall instead of walking over for a chat. They may e-mail a business client across town instead of picking up the phone. Experts agree that managers often forget that the best way to communicate the richest channel is face to face, with its potential for abundant feedback....
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