There are many ways in which to motivate a employee in the work place. Motivation means getting the employee to focus and put his/her efforts all into the work they do. It sets the employee in the same direction as management and gets everyone working for the business goals. Our motivation is what derives us to achieve success in all aspects of our lives. Motivation is an internal state that arouses directs and maintains behaviour.
In today's large corporation world motivation plays an important role in boasting a persons morale, efficiency and increase in his/her productivity.
The work motivation theories are categorized into two they are content theory i.e. what motivates us? And process theories i.e. how we become motivated.
I will begin first by explaining the process theories and then reviewing some traditional process theories of work motivation.
Process theories attempt to explain the thought processes concerning the 'why' and 'how' people choose one action over another and get motivated.
Following are some of the process theories of work motivation
Traditional Process Theories of Work Motivation.
The basic premise of Victor Vroom's Expectancy theory is that motivation is based on the strength with which individuals want something and how likely individuals think they will get it. Wood refers to expectancy theory as the argument "that work motivation is determined by individual beliefs about effort-performance relationships and the desirability's of various work outcomes from different performance levels".
The framework of expectancy theory states that motivation to behave or perform depends on the following variables:
Expectancy refers to the effort-performance relationship - It represents the strength of one's belief that the effort put into a task will result in a similar level of performance outcome. Expectancy is equal to one if an individual is certain that the performance could be achieved.
Instrumentality refers to the performance- reward relationship - It is the strength of one's belief that a performance will lead to reward. Instrumentality is equal to one if an individual is certain that the reward will be received.
Valence refers to the attractiveness or utility of the reward to the individual - The scale for valence ranges from -1 (an undesirable reward) to +1 (a desirable reward). Rewards can be either intrinsic, that is, concerned with
Vroom suggests that "motivation to work results from expectancy multiplied by instrumentality multiplied by valence". Hence the equation is as follows:
Motivation (M) =Expectancy (E) X Instrumentality (I) X Valence (V)
Some suggestion on how managers can apply the basic ideas of expectancy theory:
· Managers should first determine the rewards anticipated by employees.
· Managers should decide what kinds and levels of performance are needed to meet organizational goals, ensure that the desired levels of performance are attainable.
· Managers need to ensure that desired outcomes and desired performance are linked.
· Rewards need to be large enough, and the total system needs to be equitable.
· Equity Theory
Stacy Adams' Equity theory suggests that individuals compare their work inputs and outcomes to what they perceive others performing similar jobs are receiving (or what they received when they were performing a similar job). As noted by Wood, "inequities exist whenever people feel that the rewards or inducements they receive for their work inputs or contributions are unequal to the rewards other people appear to have received for their inputs".
Felt inequities can be either negative or positive, a negative felt inequity occurs when individuals feel that their outcomes are less for the same inputs, or that outcomes are the same for greater inputs, compared to their peer/s, and vice versa.
Equity theory predicts that when individuals feel under-rewarded or...
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