Evaluate motivation theories
Individuals join and work in organizations to fulfill their needs. They are paying attention to organizations that have the means of sustaining their needs. These means are called incentives of rewards; organizations use them to encourage individuals to contribute their efforts toward achieving organizational goals. The continued existence of an organization depends on its ability to interest and encourage individuals to accomplish these organizational and personal goals. Newman (2010), “Motivation is defined as goal-directed behavior. It concerns the level of effort one exerts in pursuing a goal. Managers are concerned with this concept because it is closely related to employee satisfaction and job performance” (Para. The Concept of Motivation). There are 2 main concepts of theories Maslow’s and Herzberg. Maslow’s need hierarchy theory divides human needs into five levels; self-actualization, esteem, social, safety and physiological needs. Physiological needs are the basic human needs including food, clothing, shelter and other necessities of life. Once these are satisfied they no longer motivate the individual. Safety needs include economic security, protection from physical danger. Social needs are love, affection, emotional needs, warmth and friendship. Esteem can be self-esteem, self-respect, self-confidence and recognition. Herzberg found that the factors causing job satisfaction (and presumably motivation) were different from that causing job dissatisfaction. Herzberg called it hygiene factors, using the term “hygiene” in the sense that they are considered maintenance factors that are necessary to avoid dissatisfaction but that by themselves do not provide satisfaction. Company policy, supervision, relationship with boss, work conditions, salary and relationship are the leading in dissatisfaction. Achievement, recognition, work itself, responsibility, advancement and growth are the leading to satisfaction. The effectiveness...
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