Essay on Motivation

Topics: Motivation, Victor Vroom, Expectancy theory Pages: 5 (1568 words) Published: October 3, 2014
With the use of motivation theory discuss how Caribbean managers can enhance the motivation of their employees. Provide relevant examples to illustrate your answer.
Motivation refers to the process by which a person’s efforts are energized, directed and sustained toward attaining a goal. Managers must be aware, that motivation is not a personal trait and when motivating people that individuals differ in motivational drive and their overall motivation varies from situation to situation. In this essay I shall seek to explain how Caribbean Managers can effectively benefit from applying Vroom’s Expectancy theory and the Adams’s Equity Theory of Motivation in motivating their employees. Vroom’s expectancy theory does not provide specific suggestions on what motivates organization members. Instead, Vroom’s theory provides a process of cognitive variables that reflects individual differences in work motivation. From a management standpoint, the expectancy theory has some important implications for motivating employees. It identifies several important things that can be done to motivate employees by altering the person’s effort-to-performance expectancy, performance-to-reward expectancy, and reward valences. Vroom was of view that employees consciously decide whether to perform or not at the job. This decision solely depended on the employee’s motivation level which in turn depends on three factors of expectancy, valence and instrumentality. Expectancy theory is more concerned with the cognitive antecedents that go into motivation and the way they relate to each other. That is, expectancy theory is a cognitive process theory of motivation that is based on the idea that people believe there are relationships between the effort they put forth at work, the performance they achieve from that effort, and the rewards they receive from their effort and performance. In other words, people will be motivated if they believe that strong effort will lead to good performance and good performance will lead to desired rewards. Victor Vroom (1964) was the first to develop an expectancy theory with direct application to work settings, which was later expanded and refined by Porter and Lawler (1968) and others (Pinder, 1987). Valance is the value that the individual associates with the outcome or reward. A positive valance indicates that the individual has a preference for getting the reward as opposed to, vice-versa, a negative valance that is indicative that the individual, based on his perception evaluated that the reward doesn't fill a need or personal goal, thus he or she doesn't place any value towards its attainment. Instrumentality refers to the "performance-reward" relation. The individual evaluates the likelihood or probability that achieving the performance level will actually result in the attainment of the reward. Caribbean Leaders should try to increase the belief that employees are capable of preforming the job successfully. Ways of doing this include: select people with the required skills and knowledge; provide the required training and clarify job requirements; provide sufficient time and resources; assign progressively more difficult tasks based on training; follow employees’ suggestions about ways to change their jobs; intervene and attempt to alleviate problems that may hinder effective performance; provide examples of employees who have mastered the task; and provide coaching to employees who lack self-confidence. In essence, leaders need to make the desired performance attainable. Victor Vroom's expectancy theory model finds application to drive employee productivity through motivation. The management of the enterprise can link positive valence of the employee to high performance, and ensure that the connection is communicated to employees. The management, through various measures such as psychological testing or counseling, can understand whether the employee prefers intrinsic rewards or extrinsic rewards, and tailor...
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