Employee Motivation and proctivity

Topics: Motivation, Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Employment Pages: 36 (10633 words) Published: December 17, 2013
Background of the Study
Employee Motivation System have become widely spread during the last decades and now often include front line workers to larger extant than before. The major aim of this system is to motivate the staff to work in line with the organizations goal. Employee Motivation System helps the organization by increasing employee satisfaction, company’s good weal, and has efficient and effective operations, many mineral water firms, especially Maaxda and Saxansaxo mineral water Burco, are known’s to be facing poor productivity due to the lack of employees motivation. According to Gareth R. Jones and Jennifer M. George's book, "Contemporary Management," motivation is defined as "psychological forces that determine the direction of a person's behavior in an organization, a person's level of effort and a person's level of persistence."

Two types of behaviors can occur during motivation: intrinsically motivated behavior and extrinsically motivated behavior. George and Jones describe intrinsically motivated behavior as behavior that is "performed for its own sake; the source of the motivation is actually performing the behavior, and motivation comes from doing the work itself." For example, those who believe in protecting the natural environment and work toward that goal are intrinsically motivated. George and Jones describe extrinsically motivated behavior as that "performed to acquire material or social rewards or to avoid punishment." Those who are working purely for monetary purposes are an example of extrinsically Motivation employee.

Morris S. Viteles wrote "Motivation and Morale in Industry" in 1953, explaining that performance is affected by motivation and motivation is affected by the fulfillment of needs. He believed that industrial psychology needed to be studied objectively to be understood. Abraham Maslow, a psychology professor in the 1950s, proposed a theory about human needs and the order in which they influence motivation. He developed his theory, called Maslow's hierarchy of needs, by studying successful people. He theorized that basic needs necessary to sustain life, such as air, food, water and sleep, must be met before any other motivations occur. Other successively influential needs for safety, love and acceptance, esteem and self-actualization follow with increasing levels of motivation after basic needs are met. In industrial and work settings, the need hierarchy applies to management techniques, employee programs and perks and benefits. Maslow's need hierarchy theory claims that the happier and more fulfilled employees are in their work and work environments, the more productive and successful they will be, translating to more profits for the company. Theory X and Theory Y are management theories regarding employee motivation developed by Douglas McGregor in the 1960s. Theory X managers believe that employees can't be trusted to work for the employer's interests unless closely supervised and forced to perform the work. Theory Y managers believe that employees are self-motivated and that managers must provide the optimal work environment and resources for employees to perform successfully. These two theories represent opposite management attitudes about employee motivation for productivity. Productivity is the ratio of output to inputs in production; it is a measure of the efficiency of production. Productivity has many benefits. At the national level, productivity growth raises living standards because more real income improves people's ability to purchase goods and services, enjoy leisure, improve housing and education and contribute to social and environmental programs. The first theory of productivity was the theory of the factors of production, which grew out of the remains of classical economics in the first half of the 19th century. The principal authors of the theory of the factors of production, J. B. Say and F. Bastiat of France,...
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