employee motivation

Topics: Motivation, Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Organizational studies and human resource management Pages: 18 (5829 words) Published: October 2, 2013


Employee motivation
Abstract
The subject of employee motivation is quite common in the modern-day working environment. People must work at some point in their lives, which begs the question as to what motivates people to work. Certainly, motivation is one of the main factors that determine the work performance of employees. Nevertheless, what does motivation actually represent? We may say that a person, man or woman, is motivated when he or she wants to do something. The reason does not represent the same thing as the stimulus. While people could be enthusiastic about a stimulus, their main reason for achieving something could be the fear of failure, the desire to distinguish themselves from the others, the wish of acquiring knowledge among others. The motivation of a person covers all the reasons for which s/he chooses to act in a certain manner (Adair, 2006). It involves the driving force behind an individual’s interest to achieve. Table of Contents

Abstract1
1.0.Introduction3
1.1.Problem statement3
1.2.Definition of key terms4
2.0.Literature Review4
2.1.Motivation theories4
2.1.1.Traditional motivation theories5
2.1.2.Modern motivation theories5
2.1.2.1.Need theories on motivation5
2.1.2.2.Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory6
2.1.2.3.Alderfer’s ERG Theory7
2.2.Other needs8
2.2.1.Need for power9
2.2.2.Achievement need9
2.2.3.Affiliation needs9
2.3.Other modern theories of motivation 9
2.3.1.McGregor’s theory X and Y9
2.3.2.Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory10
2.3.3.Valence X Expectancy Theory11
2.3.4.Goal setting theory11
2.3.5.Equity theory11
2.3.6.Theory of group personality and group needs12
3.0.Types of Employee Motivation/ Managerial Solutions to Employment12 3.1.Job design12
3.1.1.Approach one: Matching people to available jobs13
3.1.2.Approach two: matching jobs to employees13
3.2.Motivation through money14
3.3.Employee inclusiveness15
3.3.1.Participation in management15
3.3.2.Democracy at the work place15
3.3.3.Flexibility in working schedules15
4.0.Importance of motivating employees15
5.0.Benefits of motivating employees16
6.0.Conclusion16
7.0.References17

1.0. Introduction
Management of any business organization entirely relies upon the initiative of its workforce. This leaves no doubt of the need to motivate employees in all levels of the business. Several theories in history have been advanced to explain employee motivation. The theories, scientific or ordinary observations commonly concur that effective productivity from the workforce is the direct translation of their motivation. Under motivated employees contribute negatively towards the overall achievement of the organization’s objectives. The basic definition of management is getting work done by others. Comprehensively, management can be described as a set of functions that are directed at the efficient and effective utilization of resources for the achievement of set organizational goals (Deci, Ryan & Richard, 2005). Employee motivation is a thorny issue and several views have been put forward to explain situations and things that motivate employees. Scholars and researchers have come up with several theories with different conclusions on the subject of motivation. This study will utilize Fredrick Winslow Taylor, Elton Mayo, Fredrick Herzberg, and Abraham Maslow’s theories to explain the concept of employee motivation in the work place. Motivation of employees includes the management of the business organization responsible for two things. Firstly, it is the work of management to motivate its employees to meet organizational goals and secondly, management’s motivation of employees helps them meet their personal goals. Motivation is a catalyst for employees to be eager to work devoid of pressure. It is aimed at providing employees with outstanding reasons to work or perform some precise task. However, motivation is provocative and can lead to positive or negative reactions. The...

References: Adair, J. (2006). The fifty-fifty rule and the eight key principles of motivating others. Leadership and motivation, Vol. 30 No. 5, pp. 58-65.
Baumeister, R.F., & Vohs K.D. (2004). “Handbook of self-regulation: Research, theory and applications”, New York, SAGE
Deci, E
House, R. & Wigdor, L. (2001). “Herzberg 's Dual-Factor Theory of Job Satisfaction and Motivation: A Review of the Evidence and a Criticism. Personnel Psychology. 20, p-6
Leibman, M
Lepper, M. R., Greene, D. & Nisbett, R. E. (2003). “Undermining children 's intrinsic interest with extrinsic rewards: A test of the over justification hypothesis” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol.28 (1), pp- 129-137
Levesque, P
Locke, E. A. (2008). “Toward a theory of task motivation and incentives”, Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, Vol. 3, pp. 157-89.
Maslow, A. (2007). “Motivation and Personality”, New York, SAGE
Prasad, J & Prasad, N
Robbins, S. P (2001). “Organizational Behavior” 9th edition, Prentice Hall International, New Jersey
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