1. Explain the early and contemporary theories of motivation. Motivation is the processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward achieving a goal especially an organizational goal. Intensity is describing about how hard a person tries. Direction means the effort that is channeled toward and consistent with organizational goals. Persistence is describing how long an employee can maintain his /her effort to achieve the goal of an organization. Motivation is the driving force behind human behavior. For example, a very intelligent student who has the books, but because he/she does not care about grades, will not study (low motivation) and will not get an A grade.
Motivation is important due to some circumstance in individuals’ personal life and work force. Motivation is important for both individual and business. The importance of motivation to an individual is to help a person achieving personal goals. A highly motivated person will make sure to achieve the goal in targeted time. Next, if an individual is motivated, he will have job satisfaction. The individual can overcome unwanted situation in the workforce or play team work in completing the given task. Motivation is also helping in self-development of an individual. This means an individual is always looking at the positive sight and improve themselves to achieve a target. An individual would always gain by working with a dynamic team. Motivated person can be friendly and avoid misunderstanding with the cliques. They can cooperate with everyone to achieve the goal. Similarly, motivation is also important to a business success. Motivation helps in providing more self confidence employees. The more motivated employees in an organization can build more empowered team. The team building among employees is important to bring more productivity and successful to the organization. Motivation is also help workforce in an organization to handle the given task without constant supervision. Motivation brings self confidence among individuals to handle given assignment. The given task can be completed in given time frame. Motivated employees can provide competitive advantage by offering suggestions and working to satisfy customers of an organization. During the period of improvement, there will be more flexibility and creativity. Motivated organization will feel happy with the improvement. Motivation will lead to a positive and challenging attitude at work place. There are four theories in the early theories of motivation. They are Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, McGregor's Theories X and Y, Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory and McClelland’s Theory of Needs. These theories are briefly explaining about individuals’ behavior in different perspective. The early theories of motivation are familiar for two reasons. First, the early theories are the foundation to develop contemporary motivation theories. Secondly, assist managers to regularly use the theories and terms to motivate employees. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs theory
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs theory introduced in 1943 article named as “A Theory of Human Motivation” by Abraham Maslow. According to this theory, individual attempt to seek a higher need when lower needs are fulfilled. Abraham Maslow developed a model in which basic, low-level needs such as physiological requirements and safety must be satisfied before higher-level needs such as self-fulfillment are pursued. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs theory is used for understanding human motivation, management training and self development. Maslow's hierarchy of needs is shown in the following diagram.
Abraham Maslow was a humanistic psychologist proposed that within every person there are five needs of hierarchy. They consist of physiological needs, safety needs, social/belonging needs, self-esteem needs and self-actualization needs. Physiological needs are the most basic needs for food, water, shelter and other...
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