1. What is motivation? There are three main types of theories on motivation (biological, psychosocial, and biopsychosocial theories). Describe each of these theories.
Motivation consists of a set of factors that activate, direct, and maintain behavior and also influence goal-oriented behavior. It also accounts for the variability in people’s behaviors and performance. The first main type of motivation is biological motivation. The first, biological motivation is composed of three parts, instinct, where motivation is resulted from innate, biological instincts, which are unlearned responses found usually in a whole species. Drive reduction, which is motivation that begins with a biological need that elicits a drive toward behavior that will satisfy the original need and restore homeostasis. The third part of biological motivation is optimal arousal where organisms are in a general state of alertness and are motivated to achieve and maintain an optimal level of arousal. it also involves activation of sympathetic nervous system.
The second type of motivation is psychological, and consists on incentive, which is when motivation results from an external stimuli that pull the organism a certain way, and cognitive, which has to do with attributions that explain the causes of behavior and how we interpret our own or others actions.
The third type of motivation, biopsychosocial, deals with Maslow's hierarchy of needs, where lower needs, like hunger and safety must be satisfied before proceeding to higher needs like love needs or self-actualization.
2. Describe the roots of the hunger motivation, and how eating disorders may possibly develop.
The first root of hunger motivation is biological factors including the brain and genetics. In the brain, the lateral hypothalamus stimulates eating and brings on hunger, electrical stimulation to this area caused a rat to eat, and lesions in this area caused a rat not to eat. The ventromedial hypothalamus sends signals to stop eating, stimulation in this are caused a rat to stop eating, and lesions caused the rat to eat more. The hypothalamus monitors hunger hormones like insulin, leptin, orexin, ghrelin, and PPY. With genetics, genes control signals to the brain that enough fat has been stored.
The second root of hunger motivation stem from psychosocial factors. The first factor is cognition, where a distorted body image may lead to eating disorders. And the second is culture, where culture and our surroundings set up unrealistic standards for ideal body image. In this case, a teenager can see an advertisement for cloths, or an actress who is petite and the teenager will start to think that that is what everyone is suppose to look like. These stereotypes can also lead to eating disorders.
3. There is a distinction made between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Describe the difference between each type of motivation, and the conditions under which each type of motivation may be optimal.
Intrinsic motivation is when someone is engaging in a task for their own benefit or for internal satisfaction. Extrinsic motivation is based on obvious external rewards or threats of punishment and includes reinforcement. In the beginning, extrinsic motivation is necessary to shape and teach skills. Over time though, extrinsic motivation leads to decreases in the performance and enjoyment and a person is only performing the behavior for reinforcement or a reward only. In the long term, intrinsic motivation is associated with a higher educational achievement and enjoyment. Intrinsic motivation is optimal because it is found that people will spend more time on an activity when there is no reward expected.
4. Achievement motivation consists of the motivation towards success. Describe how achievement motivation is measured, as well as the core characteristics of high need for achievement individuals. What are some factors that might affect one’s level of need for...
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