Psychology: Motivation and Emotion

Topics: Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Psychology, Motivation Pages: 5 (1109 words) Published: June 14, 2013
Chapter 6: Motivation and Emotion
1. What is Motivation
a. Motivation – A physiological and psychological factors that account for the arousal (energizing), direction, and persistence of behavior. i. Motivation is a hypothetical state
2. Theories of Motivation
b. Biological Theories
ii. Instincts – Unlearned species-specific behaviors that are more complex than reflexes and triggered by environmental events called releasing stimuli iii. Ethology – The scientific study of animal behavior under natural conditions iv. Internal States, Drives, and Drive Reduction

1. Drive – Internal motivational state created by a physiological need 2. Drive-reduction theory – Theory that views motivated behavior as directed toward the reduction of a physiological need v. Optimum-level Theory

3. Theory that the body functions best at a specific level of arousal, which varies from one individual to another c. Cognitive Theories
vi. Cognitive-Consistency Theories
4. Cognitive Dissonance – Aversive state produced when an individual holds two incompatible thoughts or cognitions vii. Incentive Theories
5. We cannot explain all motives as instincts, drive reduction, or the resolution of cognitive dissonance 6. Incentive theories see motivated behavior as being pulled by the incentive or goal viii. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

7. Maslow’s view that basic needs must be satisfied before higher-level needs can be satisfied a. Physiological needs – Basic survival needs, including food, water, and sleep b. Safety needs - Needs for order, predictability, physical security, and freedom from fear c. Belongingness and love needs – Affiliation with friends and companions, a supportive family, group identification, and an intimate relationship d. Esteem needs – Attention and recognition from others, and feelings of achievement, competence, and mastery e. Self-actualization needs – Development of one’s potential to the fullest extent ix. Motives and Conflict

8. Approach-approach – Psychological situation when both alternatives are desirable 9. Avoidance-avoidance – Psychological situation when both alternatives are undesirable 10. Approach-avoidance – Psychological situation when an alternative is both desirable and undesirable 11. Multiple approach-avoidance – Psychological situation when each alternative is both desirable and undesirable 3. Specific Motivation

d. Hunger – Physiological need that pushes us to behave in particular ways: We eat because we must do so to survive x. Nutrition and Eating – Dietary problems for Americans has turned from vitamin and nutrient deficiencies have turned to excesses and imbalances in the food we consume xi. How does my Weight Compare

12. Obesity – Body weight of 20% or more in excess of desirable body weight xii. The Body Mass Index – A numerical index calculated from a person’s height and weight that is used to indicate health status and disease risk xiii. The Biology of Obesity

13. Calorie – Shorthand for kilocalorie; Is a measure of energy: One calorie is the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water one degree Celsius 14. One pound of fat contains 3,500 calories

15. Only 5% of cases of obesity result from physical causes such as endocrine dysfunctions or damage to the hypothalamus. 16. Basal Metabolic Rate – The minimum energy needed to keep an awake, resting body alive xiv. Social and Cultural Factors in Weight

17. Rates of obesity vary greatly from country to country, which suggests that culture plays a role xv. Dieting...
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