COHR 2104: Motivation Theory and Strategy
The quest for improving performance at work is one of the essences of management. Clearly there are many factors involved in this- having the right equipment, people with the right knowledge, skills and abilities, and the right kind of organizational framework. But even with all these in place, something else is needed: the people must be willing to work. They have to be motivated in some way to undertake the tasks which will contribute the organisation achieving its objectives. Each and every organisation exists for a reason and the general prime reason for their existence is to achieve set goals, targets and objectives, for this reason, as such; All organizations are concerned with what should be done to achieve sustained high levels of performance through people. This means giving close attention to how individuals can best be motivated through such means as incentives, rewards, leadership and, importantly, the work they do and the organization context within which they carry out that work. The aim is to develop motivation processes and a work environment that will help to ensure that individuals deliver results in accordance with the expectations of management. (Armstrong, One of the central concerns in organisations is why people perform and behave the way they do in their jobs and in their organisations.
Questions such as; “What makes some people work hard while others seem to do as little as possible?” “How can I influence the performance of those who work for me? Are raised by virtually every manager at one point or another. People have their needs, aspirations and drives as human beings. Since the manager works with and through people, he must recognise these needs in order to motivate his subordinates to work to the best of their abilities. To be effective, managers must understand what motivation is, how people can be motivated and how they can use motivation to direct people towards the attainment of organisational goals. In examining motivation, there are essentially three key questions: 1. What energises people or human behaviour?
2. What channels or directs that behaviour?
3. How can certain behaviours be sustained or maintained over time? The meaning of motivation
What is motivation?
Today, virtually all people have their own definitions of motivation, of interest one or more of the following words are included: desires, needs, wants, wishes, aims, goals, motives, drives, aspirations and incentives. Technically, the term motivation can be traced from the Latin word movere, which means “to move” Motivation defined;
A motive is a reason for doing something, i.e. Motives are the “whys” of behavior. Motivation then can be defined as the purpose for, or psychological cause of, an action. It is an inner drive to behave or act in a certain manner in order to accomplish a particular goal. Motivation is a psychological drive that directs a person toward an objective. Motivation is a process that starts with a physiological or psychological deficiency or need that activates a behaviour or a drive that is aimed at a goal or incentive. Thus, the key to understanding the process of motivation lies in the meaning of, and relationship among needs, drives and incentives. The motivation process can be depicted as follows;
Needs. Needs are created whenever there is a physiological or psychological imbalance, e.g. a need exist when cells in the body are deprived of food and water or when the personality is deprived of other people who serve as friends or companions. Drives. Drives or motives, are set up to alleviate needs. Physiological and psychological drives are action oriented and provide an energising thrust toward reaching an incentive. The examples of the needs for food and water are translated into hunger and thirst drives, and the need for friends becomes a drive for affiliation. Incentives. At the end of the...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document