CHAPTER 2 – MOTIVATION
1. NEEDS- Why do consumers do what they need to do?
2. MOTIVATION- is the driving force within individuals that compels them to action. Motivation (in consumer behaviour)- what leads the consumer to search, but, consume and dispose of products. 3. GOALS- What do consumers want to achieve? i.e. desired ends 4. LAYERS OF REASONS: means-end-analysis
Need- any human requirement
Type of Need
aka biogenic or primary needs
Are physiological (i.e. biogenic)
Food, water, air, clothing, shelter and sex.
Executive- needs a house
aka psychogenic (psychological) secondary needs or motives
Learning in response to culture and environment.
Esteem, prestige, power, or learning.
Social needs- entertain large groups of people.
Ego needs- exclusive community
When satisfying a primary need, the selection made will satisfy a secondary need.
HIERARCHY OF NEEDS
MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS
Lower needs must be satisfied first before new (and higher) level need emerges. A lower need will become temporarily dominant if a lower need is newly deprived. Type of Need
Physiological Needs (Biogenic)
Food, water, air, shelter & sex
Health foods, medicines and low-fat products
Safety & Security Needs
Protection, order & stability, order, stability, familiarity.
e.g. Australian union movement
Insurance, preventive medical medical services
Affection, friendship, belonging, acceptance, affiliation
Personal care, grooming products
Inward- self acceptance, self-esteem, success, independence and personal satisfaction Outward- prestige, reputation, status and recognition from others Power
Desire to reach our full potential
Can be creative urge
Advertisements for art lessons, banking services and new graduate recruitment
APPLICATION TO MARKETING
There are consumer goods designed to satisfy each of the need levels and because most needs are shared by large group of consumers.
Self-actualisation- postgraduate university studies
hobby-related products, and exotic and physically challenging adventure trips Positioning Analysis
Different needs can be identified when selecting a ‘position’- so that the same product will look distinctly different from its competitors. E.g. Car
Status- ‘impress your friends’
Self-actualising-‘You deserve the very best’
Criticisms of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Does not take into account heroic or altruistic behaviour
Unable to predict specific behaviour
Consumers bypass some of the motive
More than one need can be satisfied by a single behaviour
Same behaviour can satisfy different needs at different times Different needs can lead to the same behaviour
May not represent the correct hierarchal order for all cultures or even subcultures Many examples of people satisfying higher order needs at the expense of lower order needs
TRIO OF NEEDS (McCLELLAND)
Similar to Maslow’s
An individual’s desire to control the environment
Friendship, acceptance and belonging
Ego and self actualisation
HAVING MULTIPLE NEEDS
A consumer’s behaviour often fulfils more than one need.
Multiple needs may be conflicting.
The degree to which each need has been recently satisfied will play a part in which of the multiple needs dominate. Needs are never fully satisfied i.e. the cyclical.
New needs emerge as old needs are satisfied.
Prepotent- one overriding need that initiates behaviour.
SELECTION OF GOALS
Individuals set desired ends (goals) on the basis of their personal values, and they select means (or behaviours) that they believe will help them achieve their desired ends. Desired end.
Self-image/self-perception- products that more closely match our...
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